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Tughluq Dynasty [1320 – 1414]

Filed under: History on 2022-02-16 18:30:48
Tughluq Dynasty  [1320 – 1414]

1.    Ghiyasuddin Tughluq [1320-1324]
2.    Muhammad Tughluq [1324 -1351]
3.    Firuz Shah Tughluq [1351 -1388]

#    So, what the first thing Sultans did were consolidating these hinterlands of the garrison towns. During these campaigns forests were cleared in the Ganga-Yamuna doab and hunter- gatherers and pastoralists expelled from their habitat.
#    These lands were given to peasants and agriculture was encouraged. New fortresses and towns were established to protect trade routes and to promote regional trade.
#    Secondly , expansion occurred along the “external frontier” of the Sultanate. Military expeditions into southern India started during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and culminated with Muhammad Tughluq.

A) Administration & Consolidation

#    Rather than appointing aristocrats as governors, the early Delhi Sultans, especially Iltutmish, favoured their special slaves purchased for military service, called bandagan .
#    The Khaljis and Tughluqs continued to use bandagan and also raised people of humble birth, who were often their clients, to high political positions.
#    Slaves and clients were loyal to their masters and patrons, but not to their heirs.
#    Authors of Persian tawarikh criticised the Delhi Sultans for appointing the “low and base-born” to high offices.
#    Military commanders were appointed as governors of territories . This land is called iqta and their holder called iqtadar or muqti . The duty of muqti was to lead military campaigns and maintain law and order in their iqtas.
#    But still large parts of the subcontinent remained outside the control of the Delhi Sultans.
#    The Mongols under Genghis Khan invaded Transoxiana in north-east Iran in 1219 and the Delhi Sultanate during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughluq .

B) Khalji’s defensive policy against Genghis

#    As a defensive measure, Alauddin Khalji raised a large standing army.
#    Constructed a new garrison town named Siri for his soldiers.
#    In order to feed soldiers, produce collected as tax from lands was done and paddy has got fixed tax as 50% of the yield.
#    Alauddin chose to pay his soldiers salaries in cash rather than iqtas. He made sure merchants sell supplies to these soldiers according to prescribed prices .
#    So here A.Khalji’s administrative measure were highly praised due to effective intervention in markets to have prices unders control .
#    He successfully withstood the threat of Mongol invasions .

c). Tughluq offensive policy against Genghis

#    The Mongol army was defeated earlier. M.Tughluq still raised a large standing army.
#    Rather than constructing a new garrison town he emptied the residents of a Delhi city named Delhi-i Kuhna and the soldiers garrisoned there.
#    Produce from the same area was collected as tax and additional taxes to feed the large army. This coincided with famine in the area. .
#    Muhammad Tughluq also paid his soldiers cash salaries. But instead of controlling prices, he used a “token” currency. This cheap currency could be counterfeited easily because it was made of “bronze”.
#    His campaign into Kashmir was a disaster. He then gave up his plans to invade Transoxiana and disbanded his large army .
#    His administrative measures created complications. The shifting of people to Daulatabad was resented. The raising of taxes and famine in the Ganga-Yamuna belt led to widespread rebellion. And finally, the “token” currency had to be recalled.
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