Tughluq Dynasty [1320 – 1414] 1. Ghiyasuddin Tughluq [1320-1324] 2. Muhammad Tughluq [1324 -1351] 3. Firuz Shah Tughluq [1351 -1388] # So, what the first thing Sultans did were consolidating these hinterlands of the garrison towns. During these campaigns forests were cleared in the Ganga-Yamuna doab and hunter- gatherers and pastoralists expelled from their habitat. # These lands were given to peasants and agriculture was encouraged. New fortresses and towns were established to protect trade routes and to promote regional trade. # Secondly , expansion occurred along the “external frontier” of the Sultanate. Military expeditions into southern India started during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and culminated with Muhammad Tughluq. A) Administration & Consolidation # Rather than appointing aristocrats as governors, the early Delhi Sultans, especially Iltutmish, favoured their special slaves purchased for military service, called bandagan . # The Khaljis and Tughluqs continued to use bandagan and also raised people of humble birth, who were often their clients, to high political positions. # Slaves and clients were loyal to their masters and patrons, but not to their heirs. # Authors of Persian tawarikh criticised the Delhi Sultans for appointing the “low and base-born” to high offices. # Military commanders were appointed as governors of territories . This land is called iqta and their holder called iqtadar or muqti . The duty of muqti was to lead military campaigns and maintain law and order in their iqtas. # But still large parts of the subcontinent remained outside the control of the Delhi Sultans. # The Mongols under Genghis Khan invaded Transoxiana in north-east Iran in 1219 and the Delhi Sultanate during the reign of Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad Tughluq . B) Khalji’s defensive policy against Genghis # As a defensive measure, Alauddin Khalji raised a large standing army. # Constructed a new garrison town named Siri for his soldiers. # In order to feed soldiers, produce collected as tax from lands was done and paddy has got fixed tax as 50% of the yield. # Alauddin chose to pay his soldiers salaries in cash rather than iqtas. He made sure merchants sell supplies to these soldiers according to prescribed prices . # So here A.Khalji’s administrative measure were highly praised due to effective intervention in markets to have prices unders control . # He successfully withstood the threat of Mongol invasions . c). Tughluq offensive policy against Genghis # The Mongol army was defeated earlier. M.Tughluq still raised a large standing army. # Rather than constructing a new garrison town he emptied the residents of a Delhi city named Delhi-i Kuhna and the soldiers garrisoned there. # Produce from the same area was collected as tax and additional taxes to feed the large army. This coincided with famine in the area. . # Muhammad Tughluq also paid his soldiers cash salaries. But instead of controlling prices, he used a “token” currency. This cheap currency could be counterfeited easily because it was made of “bronze”. # His campaign into Kashmir was a disaster. He then gave up his plans to invade Transoxiana and disbanded his large army . # His administrative measures created complications. The shifting of people to Daulatabad was resented. The raising of taxes and famine in the Ganga-Yamuna belt led to widespread rebellion. And finally, the “token” currency had to be recalled.