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Sangam Age History | Indian History

South of the Deccan plateau, the land between the hills of Venkatam and Kanyakumari is called Tamizhakam or TamilahamSangam poem's mentionSangam poems mention muvendar, i.e., the three chiefs of the three ruling families that of the Cheras, the Cholas and the Pandyas the there had their strongholds   ......

First round table conference Indian History

Filed under: History
Between November 1930 and January 1931, London hosted the first Round Table Conference.This was the first conference that the British and Indians organized on an equal status.The conference was boycotted by Congress and a few notable business leaders, but many other Indian groups were present.Rettam  ......

Rise of Kanishk | Kushana Empire

Filed under: History
This article will enlighten the Rise of Kanishk in Kushana Empire. I have tried to cover all the things in this article but some may be left. 

Kadphises II was succeeded by Kanishka. He was most known and greatest of all the Kushana kings.

Kanishka ascended to throne in A.D. 78 and he founded   ......

Invasion of Sakas

Filed under: History
The Indo-Greek rule in north-western India was destroyed by the Sakas.

The Sakas are also known as the Scythians.

Sakas or Scythians were nomadic tribes originally from central Asia.

In about 165 B.C., Sakas were turned out of their original home by the Yueh-chi.

Yueh-chi later came to b  ......

Tughluq Dynasty [1320 – 1414]

Filed under: History
Tughluq Dynasty  [1320 – 1414]

1.    Ghiyasuddin Tughluq [1320-1324]
2.    Muhammad Tughluq [1324 -1351]
3.    Firuz Shah Tughluq [1351 -1388]

#    So, what the first thing Sultans did were consolidating these hinterlands of the garrison towns. During these campaigns forests were cleared i  ......

Indo Greek Invasion

Filed under: Ancient History
The arrival of the Yavanas in India marked by their invasion on the western border of India.

Indo greek
After Alexander’s death, a large part of his empire came under the rule of his Generals.

Bactria and Parthia, the adjoining areas of Iran were two main areas under the rule of Alexander  ......

History of Rashtrakutas

Rashtrakutas built an empire which in the days of greatness extended from Malwa (central India) and Gujrath to Tanjore in south, effectively covering whole of south India. Rashtrakutas, who inherited Chalukyan empire, extended it further by penetrating in deep north and occupying Gangatic doab regio  ......

Partition of Bengal 1905

The partition of Bengal in 1905 was one measure which created deep discontentment among the Indians, The province of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha was divided into two parts. The original province included western Bengal, Bihar and Odisha and the new province included Assam and eastern Bengal. Curzon ple  ......

Chera Dynasty

The Cheras were also known as ‘Keralaputras’ in the history. The Chera kingdom occupied the region of a narrow strip between the sea and the mountains of Konkan range.

Chera Kingdom
The Chera rulers also occupied high position in the history of south India. Nedunjeral Adan was a famous Chera  ......

History of Akbar the Mughal Emperor

Filed under: History
Abu’l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar was one of the mightiest emperors during the Mughal era. With a strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include much of the Indian subcontinent. His power and influence, however, extended over the entire subc  ......

History of Pratiharas Empire

Filed under: History
The Pratiharas are believed to be the clan of Rajputs. They set foot in India during the Huns invasion and settle around Panjab Rajputana region. Soon they advanced to Aravali and Ujjain. The branch of the Pratiharas who ruled in the Gurjarat were the Gurjaras. The inscription of the Pratiharas trac  ......

History of Pandya Dynasty

The Pandya kingdom was the second important kingdom in south India during this period. It occupied the region of modern districts of Tirunelveli, Ramnad, and Madurai in Tamil Nadu.

The capital of Pandya kingdom was Madurai. The Pandyan kingdom was very wealthy and prosperous.

The Sangam litera  ......

History of Cholas Dynasty

# The Cholas have occupied the region of Kaveri delta and the adjoining area. The region of Kanchi was also part of the Cholas kingdom.

# Cholas kingdom
The Kingdom was situated towards the north-east of Pandya kingdom and it was also called as Cholamandalam in early medieval times.

# In the   ......

Pala Dynasty

Pala Dynasty was the ruling Dynasty in Bihar and Bengal India, from the 8th to the 12th century.  Called the Palas because all their names ended in Pala, "protector".  The Palas rescued Bengal from the chaos into which it had fallen after the death of Shashanka, a rival of Harsha of Kanauj.  The fou  ......

History of Pallavas

Pallavas,the pastoral tribe emerged as a powerful ruler and commanded the region ofThondaimandalam.from its capital located at Pallavapuri (Bhavatri, of Nellore in theAndhra). They were of sect "Thiraiyar" and the region they ruled was called"Thondaimandalam". With the capital washed away by the sea  ......

Delhi Sultanate Indian History

Filed under: History
Delhi Sultanate refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India (1210-1526). It was founded after Muhammad of Ghor defeated Prithvi Raj and captured Delhi in 1192. In 1206, Qutb ud-Din, one of his generals, proclaimed himself sultan of Delhi and founded a line of rulers called the Slave d  ......

History of Kushana Empire

In the early 2nd century BC, a tribe on the Central Asian frontier of China called Hsiung-nu defeated a neighboring one known as Yueh-chih. After more conflict, the survivors of the Yueh-chih were dislocated west, passing down the Ili river valley and along the southern shore of lake Issyk Kul. This  ......

Women in Buddhism and Jainism for UPSC IAS

Women in Buddhism and Jainism

The 6th century BCE in the Indian subcontinent was a dynamic period. It witnessed several changes that had long-lasting consequences. Firstly, the period witnessed the rise of territorial kingdoms known as Mahajanapadas. Secondly, the Indian subcontinent witnessed th  ......

Chola Dynasty in Indian History

The Cholas are the earliest and the most ancient among the South Indian royal houses. The artifacts of the period found in South India mention Mahabharata as well as Ashokan edicts.

The CholaKingdom is very ancient, there has been references made in Mahabharatha and even in Ashokan inscriptions.   ......

The Pandyan Dynasty Indian History

The Pandyas were one of the three small Dhravidian races that occupied the southern extremity of India. Around 700 BC, Dhravidians must have penetrated into S.India and organized themselves into distinguishable communities. Titles such as Solan, Pandiyan, and Keralas proves the existence of such a c  ......

Kanva Dynasty Indian History

Kanva dynasty had a Brahmanic origin. The dynasty was named after the gotra of the ruler Kanva. The Kanva dynasty was founded by Vasudeva Kanva. It is believed that Vasudeva Kanva killed the Shunga ruler Devabhuti and established his own empire in 72 BCE.

Kanva dynasty had a ruling phase from 72   ......

Vijay Nagar Empire - Indian History

Foundation of Vijaynagar empire is certainly the most significant event in the history of medieval India. It lasted for 3 centuries and successfully prevented the extension of Muslim sultanetes in south. History of Vijaynagar empire is truly an unbroken era of bloody wars with Bahamani and other Mus  ......

Maratha Empire Indian History

The Marathas' rise to power was a dramatic turning point that accelerated the demise of Muslim dominance in India. Maratha chieftains were originally in the service of Bijapur sultans in the western Deccan, which was under siege by the Mughals. Shivaji Bhonsle (1627 - 1680 AD) is recognized as the "  ......

Rulers of Chalukya Dynasty

# Jayasimha was the first ruler of the Chalukyas.

1. Pulakesin I (Reign: 543 AD – 566 AD)

#  Founded the empire with his capital at Vatapi.
# Performed Ashwamedha.

2.  Kirtivarman I (Reign: 566 AD – 597 AD)

# Son of Pulakesin I.
# Conquered Konkan and northern Kerala.

3. Mangale  ......

The Pallavas of Kanchi

Filed under: History
In the last quarter of the 6th century A.D. the Pallava king Sinhavishnu rose to power and conquered the area between the rivers Krishna and Cauveri. His son and successor Mahendravarman was a versatile genius, who unfortunately lost the northern parts of his dominion to the Chalukya king, Pulekesin  ......

The Chalukyas of Badami

Filed under: History
The Chalukyas were a great power in southern India between 6th and 8th century A.D. Pulakesin I, the first great ruler of this dynasty ascended the throne in 540 A.D. and having made many splendid victories, established a mighty empire. His sons Kirtivarman and Mangalesa further extended the kingdom  ......

Chipko Movement | Chipko Andolan

Filed under: History
Chipko Movement was a non-violent agitation which originated in Chamoli district and later at Tehri-Garhwal district of Uttarakhand in 1973. The name of the movement ‘chipko’ comes from the word ’embrace’, as the villagers hugged the trees and encircled them to prevent being hacked.

The  ......

Course and Consequences of Second World War

Filed under: World History
Course of Second world War:

# World War II officially began on September 1, 1939.
# Germany conquered – Poland, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Holland and France.
# Battle of Britain – Germany vs Britain (air battle; German Air force =Luftwaffe).
# Battle of Stalingrad – Germany vs USSR. (Ope  ......

Causes of Second World War(1939-1945)

Filed under: World History
These were the causes of second world war.
(1) Humiliation by the Treaty of Versailles

    #War indemnity.
    #The provision for disarming Germany.
    #Saar coal mine to France for 15 years.
    #Polish corridor was given to Poland.
    #City of Danzing was made free.

(2) Growth of Fasc  ......

What are Smritis | Ancient History

# The Smritis have continued to play a very important role in Hindu life as it were playing since the last two thousand years.

# The Smritis explained the religious duties, usage, laws, and social customs.

# The Smritis are the expanded version of the Dharmasutras, which covered the period fro  ......

Sangam Literature

# Tamil language is the oldest one among the south Indian languages. The earliest phase of Tamil literature is associated with the three Sangams.

# Sangams were the societies of learned men established by the Pandya kingdom. Each Sangam comprises of a number of distinguished poets and learned sch  ......

Small Dynasty in Indian History

Apart from some important dynasties ruling in the post-Mauryan period in north India, there were a number of republics ruling smaller states. The information about these small dynasties is extracted from their coins on which their names were written.

Following are some of the important small dyna  ......

Early History of South India

# During the 1,000 B.C., the present states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala (in southern India) were inhabited by megalithic people.

# The important phase of the ancient history of south India is from the Megalithic period to about A.D. 300.

Megalithic Phase:

The literary meaning of the term megal  ......

Sunga Dynasty in short

The last Mauryan king Brithadratha was killed by his commander-in-chief Pushyamitra Sunga in 185 BC. He did so on being disgusted with his ruler's policy of the so-called non-violence that stood in the way of his leading a campaign against the alien invaders who had occupied a big chunk of North-Wes  ......

Nanda Dynasty in Brief

The first Magadha dynasty was overthrown by the usurper Mahapadna, founder of the Nanda dynasty, son of a low-caste woman. He established his capital in Pataliputra (eastern Bihar) at the time that Alexander was campaigning in the Indus river valley (327-324). The Nandas ruled Magadha between 364 B.  ......

Shishunaga Dynasty

Pradyota assents the throne of Avanti ending the Brhadratha Dynasty and commencing the Pradyota Dynasty of Magadha.

The Mahavamsa states that Ajatasattu's son Udayabhadra succeeded Ajatasattu and ruled for the next sixteen years. He moved his capital to the bank of Ganges which was known as Patal  ......

Haryanka Dynasty History

Pradyota became king of Avanti ending the Brhadratha Dynasty and commencing the Haryanka Dynasty of Magadha. The Haryanka king Bimbsara was responsible for expanding the boundries of his kingdom through matrimonial alliances and conquest. Bimbsara was the contemporary to Buddha. Bimbsara was impriso  ......

Kalinga Kingdom

Kalinga is mentioned in the ancient scriptures as Kalinga the Braves (Kalinga Sahasikha). During the 3rd century B.C. the Greek ambassador Megasthenes in his tour of India had mentioned about the military strength of the Kalinga army of about one lakh which consisted of 60 thousand soldiers, 1700 ho  ......

Kosala Kingdom

Kosala was an ancient Indian kingdom, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Oudh. in what is now south-central Uttar Pradesh state, it extended into present-day Nepal. Its capital was Ayodhya. In the 6th century BC it rose to become one of the dominant states in northern India. Kosala for  ......

Ghandahra Kingdom

Ghandahra is the name of an ancient Mahajanapada in northern Pakistan and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir and eastern Afghanistan. Gandhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau and on the northern side of the Kabul River. Its main cities were Peshawar and Taxila.

T  ......

Kuru Kingdom

Kuru was the name of an Indo-Aryan tribe and their kingdom in the Vedic civilization of India. Their kingdom was located in the area of modern Haryana. They formed the first political center of the Indo-Aryans after the Rigvedic period, and after their emergence from the Punjab, and it was there tha  ......

Mahajanpadas in details

There were many states of the Aryans in North India, around the 6th century B. C. These states were called the 'Mahajanapadas'. The Mahajanapadas of Anga, Kashi, Kosala, Chedi, Vatsa, Matsya, Shursen, Ashmak, Avanti, Gandhar and Magadha were ruled by kings or monarchs. The kings in these states had   ......

Verdhaman Mahavir History

Birth name of Mahavir was Vardhman. The different names Ativir , Sanmati , Mahavir were the titles conferred upon him for his acts of boldness and bravery at different occasions. He was born in a princely family with all the comforts of life were available to him but child Mahavir did not evince int  ......

Gautam Buddha History

Siddhartha Gautama was a prince who lived in the kingdom of Sakyas, near the present day border of India and Nepal, more than 2500 years ago. The young prince was raised in great luxury, but he was not happy. He wanted to understand what caused human suffering. He did not understand why some people   ......

Describe Yajurveda

Filed under: History Vedic Period
“Yajus” means worship, and “Veda” means knowledge, so Yajur Veda is devoted to the worship of the Gods. It primarily contains prose mantras for worship rituals. It describes the way to perform religious rituals as well as sacred ceremonies.

In simple terms, Yajurveda can be understood as   ......

Who were Aryans in History

# About 1500 B.C., groups of warlike people left their homes in central Asia, possibly near the Caucasus Mountains, and came to India. These people called themselves arya (kinsmen or nobles). They are now known as the Aryans. The Aryans are said to have entered India through the fabled Khyber pass,   ......

Dravidian history

Dravidian is the name given to a linguistically related group of people in India. They are said to be the first original settlers of ancient India. Dravidian culture is very diverse, with some groups maintaining more traditional customs such as totemism and matralinealism, while others have develope  ......

Extension of Chalukya Dynasty

The Chalukyas ruled parts of Southern and Central India between the 6th century and the 12th century.

# The Chalukya dynasty reached its peak during the reign of Pulakesin II.

# His grandfather Pulakesin I had created an empire around Vatapi.

# Pulakesin II subjugated the Kadambas, the Gang  ......

Economy of Maurya Empire Indian History

Filed under: History Maurya Empire
# Largely, the population was agriculturists and lived in villages. The state helped people to bring new areas under cultivation by cleaning the forest. But certain types of forests were protected by law.

# A number of crops like rice, coarse grains (kodrava), sesame, pepper, and saffron, pulses,  ......

Origin of Kushana Empire Ancient History

Kushans or Kuei-Shang were one of the five Great Yueh-chi (tribes) principalities. In the 1st century CE, Kujula Kadphises (Kadphises I) brought together these five principalities and founded the Kushan Empire. The Kushans movement in India can be traced back to the first century CE during Kadphises  ......

Who is Veer Savarkar for UPSC

# Born on May 28, 1883 in Bhagur, a city in Maharashtra’s Nashik.

# In his teenage, Savarkar formed a youth organization. Known as Mitra Mela, this organization was put into place to bring in national and revolutionary ideas.

# He was against foreign goods and propagated the idea of Swadeshi  ......

The decline of the Kushana Empire

# Kanishka was succeeded by his son Vasishka.
# Vasishka was followed by Huvishka and Kanishka II (son of Vasishka).
# Kanishka II was followed by Vasudeva I.
# Vasudeva I was the last great king of the Kushanas. After his death, the empire disintegrated away. He probably died in 232 AD

After   ......

Kanishka of Kushan Dynasty

# He rules from 127 AD – 150 AD.
# Considered the greatest Kushana king and also a great king of ancient India.
# Son of Vima Kadphises.
# His kingdom included Afghanistan, parts of Sindhu, parts of Parthia, Punjab, Kashmir, parts of Magadha (including Pataliputra), Malwa, Benaras, perhaps part  ......

Jalianwala Bagh Massacre Explaination

Filed under: History Modern History
# incident on April 13, 1919, in which British troops fired on a large crowd of unarmed Indians in an open space known as the Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar in the Punjab region (now in Punjab state) of India, killing several hundred people and wounding many hundreds more.

# During World War I (191  ......

Life of Gautam Buddha and Buddhism

#  Buddhism was founded by Gautama Buddha.
 # Buddha was born as Prince Siddhartha at Lumbini near Kapilavastu (in present Nepal) in 566 BC.
# He was the son of Suddhodhana and Mahamaya. Suddhodhana was the chief of the Sakya clan. Due to this, Buddha was also known as ‘Sakyamuni’.
# His moth  ......

Rulers of Gupta Empire

Filed under: History Gupta Empire
These are the rulers of Gupta Empire. 
1. Sri Gupta	
# Founder of Gupta Dynasty
# Reign from 240 CE to 280 CE
# Used the title of ‘Maharaja‘

2. Ghatotkacha	
# Son of Sri Gupta
# Took the title of ‘Maharaja‘

3. Chandragupta I	
# Reigned from 319 CE to 335/336 CE
# Started the Gu  ......

Chedi Dynasty Ancient History

# The Chedi/Cheti dynasty rose in Kalinga in the 1st century BCE.
# The Hathigumpha inscription situated near Bhubaneswar talks about this.
# This inscription was engraved by king Kharavela who was the third Cheti king.
# King Kharavela followed Jainism.
# Chedi dynasty was also known as Cheta o

Brief description of Kanva Dynasty

# According to the Puranas, there were 4 kings of the Kanva dynasty who were, Vasudeva, Bhumimitra, Narayana and Susarman.
# The Kanvas were said to be Brahmins.
The Magadha Empire had declined by this time to a great extent.
# The Northwest region was under the Greeks and parts of the Gangetic p  ......

Consequences of Sunga rule

Filed under: History Sunga Dynasty
# Hinduism was revived under the Sungas.
The caste system was also revived with the rise of the Brahmanas.
# Another important development during the Sunga reign was the emergence of various mixed castes and the integration of foreigners into Indian society.
# The language of Sanskrit gained more  ......

End of the Sunga kings

Filed under: History Sunga Dynasty
# Vasumitra’s successors are not clearly known. Different names crop up in several accounts such as Andhraka, Pulindaka, Vajramitra and Ghosha.
# The last Sunga king was Devabhuti. He was preceded by Bhagabhadra.
# Devabhuti was killed by his own minister, Vasudeva Kanva in around 73 BC. This es

Agnimitra the Sunga King

Filed under: History Sunga Dynasty
# Was Pushyamitra’s son who succeeded him to the throne.
# His reign lasted from about 149 BC to 141 BC.
# By this time, Vidarbha broke away from the empire.
# Agnimitra is the hero of Kalidasa’s poem, Malavikagnimitram.
# His son Vasumitra succeeded him as king.

Pushyamitra Sunga in Sunga Dynasty

Filed under: History Sunga Dynasty
# Pushyamitra Sunga was Brahmin army chief of Brihadratha, the last king of the Mauryas.
During a military parade, he killed Brihadratha and established himself on the throne in 185 or 186 BC.
# According to some historians, this was an internal revolt against the last Mauryan king. Some say it wa  ......

After the Maurya Empire Rise of Sunga Dynasty

Filed under: History Sunga Dynasty
After the death of Ashoka, the Mauryan Empire steadily disintegrated as his successors were not able to keep the vast empire from fracturing away. Independent kingdoms arose out of the provinces. Foreign invasions were occurring in the northwest. Kalinga declared its independence. In the South, the 

Ashoka Dhamma in Maurya Empire

Filed under: History Maurya Empire
# Ashoka established the idea of paternal kingship.
# He regarded all his subjects as his children and believed it the king’s duty to look after the welfare of the subjects.
# Through his edicts, he said everybody should serve parents, revere teachers, and practice ahimsa and truthfulness.
# He  ......

Conversion of Ashoka into Buddhism

Filed under: History Maurya Empire
# The battle with Kalinga fought in 265 BC was personally led by Ashoka and he was able to vanquish the Kalingas.
# Whole cities were destroyed and more than a hundred thousand people were killed in the war.
# The horrors of war disturbed him so much that he decided to shun violence for the rest o  ......

About King Ashoka in Maurya Empire

Filed under: History Maurya Empire
# Son of Mauryan Emperor Bindusara and Subhadrangi. Grandson of Chandragupta Maurya.
# His other names were Devanampiya (Sanskrit Devanampriya meaning Beloved of the Gods) and Piyadasi.
# Considered one of India’s greatest emperors.
# He was born in 304 BC.
# His reign lasted from 268 BC to 23  ......

Why did the Mauryan dynasty fall

Filed under: History Maurya Empire
The decline of the Maurya Dynasty was rather rapid after the death of Ashoka/Asoka. One obvious reason for it was the succession of weak kings. Another immediate cause was the partition of the Empire into two. The Mauryan Empire began to decline after the death of Ashoka in 232 BC.

About Chanakya Guru of Chandragupta Maurya

Filed under: History Maurya Empire
# Teacher of Chandragupta Maurya, who was also his Chief Minister.
# He was a teacher and scholar at Taxila. 
# Other names are Vishnugupta and Kautilya.
# He was also a minister in the court of Bindusara.
# He is credited to be the master strategist behind the usurping of the Nanda th  ......

Second Ruler of the Mauryan Empire Bindusara

Filed under: History Maurya Empire
# Son of Chandragupta.
# He ruled from 297 BC to 273 BC.
# Also called Amitraghata (Slayer of foes) or Amitrochates in Greek sources.
# Deimachus was a Greek ambassador at his court.
# He had appointed his son, Ashoka as the governor of Ujjain.
# Bindusara is believed to have extended the Maury

Founder of Mauryan Empire-Chandragupta Maurya

Filed under: History Maurya Empire
# Chandragupta’s origins are shrouded in mystery. The Greek sources (which are the oldest) mention him to be of non-warrior lineage. The Hindu sources also say he was a student of Kautilya of humble birth (probably born to a Shudra woman). Most Buddhist sources say he was a Kshatriya.
# It is gen  ......

Rise of Maurya Empire Ancient History

Filed under: History Maurya Empire
In Ancient India, many significant empires evolved. One of them was the Mauryan empire. Founded by Chandragupta Maurya, the Mauryan empire was an important dynasty in our history. 
# The last of the Nanda rulers, Dhana Nanda was highly unpopular due to his oppressive tax regime.
# Also, post-Alexa  ......

Causes for the rise of Magadha

Filed under: History Magadha Empire
Geographical factors

# Magadha was located on the upper and lower parts of the Gangetic valley.
# It was located on the mainland route between west and east India.
# The area had fertile soil. It also received enough rainfall.
# Magadha was encircled by rivers on three sides, the Ganga, Son an  ......

Explain Nanda Dynasty

Filed under: History Magadha Empire
Nanda Dynasty
This was the first non-Kshatriya dynasty and it lasted from 345 BCE to 321 BCE. The first ruler was Mahapadma Nanda who usurped the throne of Kalasoka.

About Mahapadma Nanda:

# He is called the “first historical emperor of India.” (Chandragupta Maurya is the First Emperor of  ......

Explain Sisunaga Dynasty

Filed under: History Magadha Empire
Sisunaga Dynasty: 
According to Sri Lankan chronicles, the people of Magadha revolted during the reign of Nagadasaka and placed an amatya (minister) named Sisunaga as the king. Sisunaga dynasty lasted from 413 BCE to 345 BCE.


# Was the viceroy of Kasi before becoming king of Magadha.  ......

Ibrahim Lodi in Lodi Dynasty

Filed under: History Lodhi Dynasty
Ibrāhīm Lodī, (died April 21, 1526, Panipat [India]), last Afghan sultan of Delhi of the Lodī dynasty. He was a suspicious tyrant who increasingly alienated his nobles during his reign.
The son of Sikandar, Ibrāhīm succeeded to the throne on his father’s death (Nov. 21, 1517) and was quickl  ......

Lodhi Dynasty Indian History

Filed under: History Lodhi Dynasty
Lodī dynasty, (1451–1526), last ruling family of the Delhi sultanate of India. The dynasty was of Afghan origin. The first Lodī ruler was Bahlūl Lodī (reigned 1451–89), the most powerful of the Punjab chiefs, who replaced the last king of the Sayyid dynasty in 1451. Bahlūl was a vigorous le  ......

What are the Teachings of Jainism

# Mahavira rejected Vedic principles.

# He did not believe in God’s existence. According to him, the universe is a product of the natural phenomenon of cause and effect.

# He believed in Karma and transmigration of the soul. The body dies but the soul does not.

# One will be punished or r  ......

Causes of the rise of Jainism

# Vedic religion had become highly ritualistic.

# Jainism was taught in Pali and Prakrit thus was more accessible to the common man as compared to Sanskrit.

# It was accessible to people of all castes.

# Varna system had rigidified and people of the lower castes led miserable lives. Jainism  ......

Who was founder of Jainism

Founder of Jainism – Vardhaman Mahavira (539- 467 B.C.)
Here are some great points about Verdhaman Mahavira.

# Considered the last Tirthankara.

# He was born at Kundagrama near Vaisali.

# His parents were Kshatriyas. Father – Siddhartha (Head of Jnatrika Clan); Mother – Trishala (Sis  ......

Origin of Jainism Ancient History

Vardhana Mahavira was the 24th Tirthankara (a great teacher) and is said to have propounded Jainism.

Origin of Jainism:

# Jainism is a very ancient religion. As per some traditions, it is as old as the Vedic religion.

# The Jain tradition has a succession of great teachers or Tirthankaras.

Explain Gautam Buddha Life for UPSC

Gautam Buddha’s teachings revolve around the middle path of the living, the eight-fold path to enlightenment, and four noble truths. This article will provide you with relevant NCERT notes on Buddha, Buddha’s philosophy and teachings of Gautam Buddha, for the IAS Exam.

 #   Buddhism was fou  ......

Who was Udayabhadra/Udayin Magadha Empire

Filed under: History Magadha Empire
Udayabhadra/Udayin (460 BCE – 444 BCE)

# Son of Ajatasatru.
# Shifted the capital to Pataliputra (Patna).
# Last of the major Haryanka rulers.
# Udayin’s reign is important because he built the fort upon the confluence of the rivers Ganga and Son at Pataliputra. This was done because Patna  ......

Who was Ajatasatru in Magadha Empire

Filed under: History Magadha Empire
Here is the information about Ajatasatru::

# Son of Bimbisara and Chellana.
# He killed his father and became ruler.
# Embraced Buddhism.
# He convened the First Buddhist Council at Rajagriha just after the death of Buddha in 483 BCE. Read more on Buddhist Councils here.
# Won wars against Ko  ......

Who was Bimbisara in Magadha Empire

Filed under: History Magadha Empire
Here is the information about Bimbisara::
# Son of Bhattiya.
# According to Buddhist chronicles, Bimbisara ruled for 52 years (544 BCE – 492 BCE).
# Contemporary and follower of the Buddha. Was also said to be an admirer of Mahavira, who was also his contemporary.
# He Had his capital at Giriv  ......

The Magadha Empire

Filed under: History Magadha Empire
The Magadha Empire encompasses the rule of three dynasties over time – Haryanka Dynasty, Shishunaga Dynasty, and Nanda Dynasty. The timeline of the Magadha Empire is estimated to be from 684 BCE to 320 BCE.

Rise of Magadha Notes for UPSC Exam
The four Mahajanapadas – Magadha, Kosala, Avanti   ......

Later Vedic Period Vedic Civilization

Later Vedic Period or Painted Grey Ware Phase (1000 BC – 600 BC)

During this time, the Aryans moved eastwards and occupied western and eastern UP (Kosala) and Bihar.

Political structure:

# Kingdoms like Mahajanapadas were formed by amalgamating smaller kingdoms.
# King’s power increase  ......

Early Vedic Period Vedic Civilization

Early Vedic Period or Rig Vedic Period (1500 BC – 1000 BC)

Initially, the Aryans lived in the land known as “Sapta Sindhu” (Land of the Seven Rivers). These seven rivers were: Sindhu (Indus), Vipash (Beas), Vitasta (Jhelum), Parushni (Ravi), Asikni (Chenab), Shutudri (Satluj) and Saraswati.  ......

Indo-Aryan Migration to Vedic Civilization

# The Aryans were a semi-nomadic pastoral people.

# The original homeland of the Aryans is a matter of debate with different experts suggesting different regions from where they originated.

# Some say they came from the area around the Caspian Sea in Central Asia (Max Muller), while others thi  ......

Explain Upnishads Vedic Literature

A few important points about Upanishads are mentioned below:

# There are 108 Upanishads
# Out of 108 Upanishads, 13 are considered the major ones.
# The concepts of ‘Atman’ and ‘Brahman’ are majorly explained by Upanishads.

It contains philosophical ideas about the following concepts

Brahamanas Vedic Literature

They are the prose texts that explain the hymns in the Vedas and are also the classification of Sanskrit texts that are embedded within each Veda, incorporating myths and legends to explain and instruct Brahmins on the performance of Vedic rituals. In addition to explaining the symbolism and meaning  ......

Types of Vedic Literature

There are broadly two types of Vedic literature:

Shruti Literature – The word ‘Shruti’ from the term ‘Shruti Literature’ means ‘to hear’ and describes the sacred texts which comprise of Vedas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, & Upanishads. Shruti Literature is canonical, consisting of revelati  ......

Vedic Literature What are Vedas?

The Vedas are the large bodies of religious text that is composed of Vedic Sanskrit and originated in ancient India. They form the oldest scriptures of Hinduism and the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature. The Vedas are said to have passed on through verbal transmission from one generation to the ne  ......

Features of Rigveda

# It is the oldest form of Veda and oldest known Vedic Sanskrit text(1800 – 1100 BCE).

# The meaning of the word ‘Rigveda’ is Praise Knowledge.

# It has 10600 verses.

# Out of 10 books or mandalas, book number 1 and 10 are the youngest ones as they were written later than books 2 to 9  ......

Features of Samaveda

# There are 1549 verses (except 75 verses, all have been taken from Rigveda).

# There are two Upanishads embedded in Samaveda – Chandogya Upanishad and Kena Upanishad.

# The Samaveda is considered as the root of the Indian classical music and dance.

# It is considered as the storehouse of  ......

Features of Yajurveda

#. It has two types – Krishna (Black/Dark) & Shukla (White/Bright).

# Krishna Yajurveda has an un-arranged, unclear, motley collection of verses.

# Shukla Yajurveda has arranged and clear verses.

# The oldest layer of Yajurveda has 1875 verses mostly taken up from Rigveda.

# The middle  ......

Features of Atharvaveda

# The daily procedures of life are very well enumerated in this Veda.

# It has 730 hymns/suktas, 6000 mantras, and 20 books.

# Paippalada and the Saunakiya are two surviving recensions of Atharvaveda.

# Called a Veda of magical formulas, it includes three primary Upanishads – Mundaka Upan  ......

Types of Vedas

There are four types of Vedas – Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda. One of the best sources of Ancient Indian History is Vedic literature. Vedas have formed the Indian scripture. The ideas and practices of Vedic religion are codified by the Vedas and they also form the basis of classica  ......

Describe Rigveda for UPSC

Rigveda is regarded as one of the most sacred texts of Hinduism. It has fascinated scholars and historians due to its significance and antiquity. It is a collection of ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.

# The Rigveda is divided into ten books which are known as Mandalas

# It is  ......

The decline of Indus Valley Civilization

1. Causes of the decline of this civilization have not been firmly established. Archaeologists now believe that the civilization did not come to an abrupt end but gradually declined. People moved eastwards and cities were abandoned. Writing and trade declined.

2. Mortimer Wheeler suggested that t  ......

Indus Valley Civilization Important Sites

1. In India: Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Lothal, Dholavira, Rangpur, Surkotda (Gujarat), Banawali (Haryana), Ropar (Punjab). In Pakistan: Harappa (on river Ravi), Mohenjodaro (on Indus River in Sindh), Chanhudaro (in Sindh).

2. The civilization was first discovered during an excavation campaign under  ......

Indus Valley Civilization

:- The Indus Valley Civilization was established around 3300 BC. It flourished between 2600 BC and 1900 BC (Mature Indus Valley Civilization). It started declining around 1900 BC and disappeared around 1400 BC.

:- This is also called Harappan Civilization after the first city to be excavated, Har  ......

Important Chalcolithic Sites

1. Ahar (Banas valley, South Eastern Rajasthan) – The people of this region practised smelting and metallurgy, supplied copper tools to other contemporary communities. Rice was cultivated here.

2. Gilund (Banas valley, Rajasthan) – Stone blade industry was discovered here.
Daimabad  (Ahmadna  ......

Characteristics of the Chalcolithic Age

1. Agriculture & cattle rearing – The people living in the stone-copper age domesticated animals and cultivated food grains. They domesticated cows, sheep, goats, pig and buffaloes and hunted deer. It is not clear whether they were acquainted with the horse or not. People ate beef but did not take  ......

Chalcolithic Age Stone Copper Age

The Chalcolithic Age marked the emergence of the use of metal along with stone tools. The first metal to be used was copper. The chalcolithic age largely applied to the pre-Harappan phase, but in many parts of the country, it appears after the end of the bronze Harappan culture.

Important Neolithic Sites Ancient History

1. Koldihwa and Mahagara (lying south of Allahabad) – This site provides evidence of circular huts along with crude hand made pottery. There is also evidence of rice, which is the oldest evidence of rice, not only in India but anywhere in the world.

2. Mehrgarh (Balochistan, Pakistan) – The e  ......

Important Mesolithic Sites Ancient History

1. Bagor in Rajasthan is one of the biggest and best-documented Mesolithic sites in India. Bagor is on river Kothari where microliths along with animal bones and shells have been excavated.

2. Adamgarh in Madhya Pradesh provides the earliest evidence for the domestication of animals.

3. There   ......

Mesolithic Period Middle Stone Age

The term Mesolithic is derived from two Greek words – ‘meso’ and ‘lithic’. In Greek ‘meso’ means middle and ‘lithic’ means stone. Hence, the Mesolithic stage of prehistory is also known as the ‘Middle Stone Age’.

Both Mesolithic and Neolithic phases belong to the Holocene er  ......

Upper Palaeolithic age

The upper palaeolithic age coincided with the last phase of the ice age when the climate became comparatively warmer and less humid.
Emergence of Homo sapiens.
The period is marked by innovation in tools and technology. A lot of bone tools, including needles, harpoons, parallel-sided blades, fishi  ......

Middle Palaeolithic age

Tools used were flakes, blades, pointers, scrapers and borers.
The tools were smaller, lighter and thinner.
There was a decrease in the use of hand axes with respect to other tools.
Important middle Palaeolithic age sites:

Belan valley in UP
Luni valley (Rajasthan)
Son and Narmada rivers
Bh  ......

Main characteristics of the Palaeolithic age

1. The Indian people are believed to have belonged to the ‘Negrito’ race, and lived in the open air, river valleys, caves and rock shelters.
2. They were food gatherers, ate wild fruits and vegetables, and lived on hunting.
There was no knowledge of houses, pottery, agriculture. It was only in  ......

Palaeolithic Age Old Stone Age

The term ‘Palaeolithic’ is derived from the Greek word ‘palaeo’ which means old and ‘lithic’ meaning stone. Therefore, the term Palaeolithic age refers to the old stone age. The old stone age or palaeolithic culture of India developed in the Pleistocene period or the Ice Age, which is a   ......

Stone Age Ancient History

The stone age is the prehistoric period, i.e., the period before the development of the script, therefore the main source of information for this period is the archaeological excavations. Robert Bruce Foote is the archaeologist who discovered the first palaeolithic tool in India, the Pallavaram hand  ......

Aurangzeb Mughal Dynasty

Filed under: History Mughal Dynasty
1. In the north-east, the Ahoms [a kingdom in Assam near Brahmaputra valley] were defeated in 1663, but they rebelled again in the 1680s. Because Ahoms successfully resisted Mughal expansion for a long time and they dont want to give up their sovereignty which they were enjoying for 600 years .

2  ......

Jahangir and Shahjahan Mughal Dynasty

Filed under: History Mughal Dynasty
Jahangir [1605-1627]:-
1. Military campaigns started by Akbar continued.

2. The Sisodiya ruler of Mewar, Amar Singh, accepted Mughal service. Less successful campaigns against the Sikhs, the Ahoms and Ahmadnagar followed.

Shah Jahan [1627-1658]: 

1. Mughal campaigns continued in the Deccan  ......

Humayun and Akbar in Mughal Dynasty

Filed under: History Mughal Dynasty
Humayun [1530-1540, 1555-1556]
1. Humayun divided his inheritance according to the will of his father. His brothers were each given a province.

2. Sher Khan defeated Humayun which made him forced to flee to Iran.

3. In Iran, Humayun received help from the Safavid Shah. He recaptured Delhi in   ......

Babur The Founder of Mughal Empire

Filed under: History Mughal Dynasty
1. The first Mughal emperor (1526- 1530)

2. Political situation in north-west India was suitable for Babur to enter India .

3. Sikhandar Lodi died in 1517 and Ibrahim Lodi succeded him. I. Lodhi tried to create a strong centralised empire which alarmed Afghan chiefs as well as Rajaputs.

4.   ......

The Mughal Dynasty

Filed under: History Mughal Dynasty
1. From the latter half of the 16th century, they expanded their kingdom from Agra and Delhi until in the 17th century they controlled nearly all of the subcontinent.

2. They imposed structures of administration and ideas of governance that outlasted their rule, leaving a political legacy that su

End of the Swadeshi and Boycott Movements

Filed under: History
The British had seeded the seeds of communalism quite deep into India's social fabric, and the Swadeshi movement was unable to gain support from the Muslim masses, especially the Muslim peasantry, which in large parts of Bengal was in an inverse class relationship with the Hindu zamindars.

By mid  ......

Effects of Swadeshi and Boycott Movements

Filed under: History
1. The Swadeshi and boycott movements were India's first 20th century movements that encouraged mass participation in modern nationalist politics by a large section of society.

2. For the first time, women came out of their homes and joined processions and picketing of foreign-made goods shops.

Importance of Swadeshi and Boycott Movements

Filed under: History
Launched in the early 20th century, the Swadeshi movement was a direct consequence of the British India government's decision to partition Bengal. The two main goals of this movement were the use of Swadeshi goods and the boycott of foreign-made goods.

Before the Swadeshi movement was launched, p  ......

Impact of the Non-Cooperation Movement

Filed under: History
Despite the failure of the Non - Cooperation Movement to achieve its primary goal of Swaraj, it has succeeded on many other counts highlighted below:
1. The National Congress has shown that it represents the country's majority opinion. It can not be charged with representing a ' microscopic mino  ......

End of the Non-Cooperation Movement

Filed under: History
While in 1921 the Non - Cooperation Movement was in full steam, the masses were awakened from their slumber and the grass root workers of Congress, as well as the leadership, were asking Mahatma Gandhi to launch the next phase of mass civil disobedience.

Gandhi announced that massive civil disobe  ......

Chauri Chaura Incident

Filed under: History
A Congress - Khilafat procession took place at Chauri Chaura in U.P. district of Gorakhpur on February 5, 1922. Irritated by some policemen's behavior, they were attacked by a crowd section. The police opened fire on the unarmed procession in retaliation. Instigated by this, the whole procession att  ......

The launch of the Non-Cooperation Movement

Filed under: History
The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, Rowlatt Act and Khilafat Movement resulted in unrest among the masses anxious to take political action against the British government. Only added fuel to the fire was the economic hardship suffered by ordinary Indians. On August 1, 1920, the Non - Cooperation Movement   ......

Who were the Leaders of the Khilafat Movement

Filed under: History
The Ali Brothers (Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali), Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan, and Hasrat Mohani were the leaders of the Khilafat Movement. Mahatma Gandhi later also became one of the leaders of the Khilafat Movement in India by strongly advocating the Khilafat cause.

Khilafat Movement in India

Filed under: History
Turkey had aligned itself in the First World War with Germany - led Axis powers that were defeated by Great Britain - led Allied powers. The political - conscious Muslims were critical of British and their allies treatment of the Turkish (Ottoman) Empire that had divided it and properly removed Thra  ......

Causes of Non-Cooperation Movement and Khilafat Movement

Filed under: History
The Non - Cooperation Movement has had four main causes:
1. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and Resultant Punjab Disturbances
2. Dissatisfaction with Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms
3. Rowlatt Act
4. Khilafat Agitation

1. Jallianwala Bagh Massacre and Resultant Punjab Disturbances
On April 13, 1919, a   ......

Non Cooperation Movement Indian History

Filed under: History
Noncooperation movement, unsuccessful attempt in 1920–22, organized by Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi, to induce the British government of India to grant self-government, or swaraj, to India. It was one of Gandhi’s first organized acts of large-scale civil disobedience (satyagraha).

The movement a  ......

Reasons for Decline of Indus Valley Civilization

Filed under: History
Though there are various theories, the exact reason is still unknown. As per a recent study by IIT Kharagpur and Archaeological Survey of India, a weaker monsoon might have been the cause of the decline of Indus Valley Civilization. Environmental changes, coupled with a loss of power of rulers (cent  ......

Indus Valley Society and Culture

Filed under: History
1. The systematic method of weights and measures ( 16 and its multiples).
2. Pictographic Script, Boustrophedon script – Deciphering efforts by I. Mahadevan
3. Equal status to men and women
4. Economic Inequality, not an egalitarian society
5. Textiles – Spinning and weaving
6. 3 types –   ......

The religion of Indus Valley People

Filed under: History
1. Pashupathi Mahadev (Proto Siva)
2. Mother goddess
3. Nature/ Animal worship
4. Unicorn, Dove, Peepal Tree, Fire
5. Idol worship was practised ( not a feature of Aryans)
6. Did not construct temples.
7. The similarity to Hindu religious practises. (Hinduism in its present form origi

Indus Valley Sites and Specialties

Filed under: History
1. Seals out of stones
2. Citadel outside on banks of river Ravi

1. Great Bath, Great Granary, Dancing Girl, Man with Beard, Cotton, Assembly hall.
2. The term means ” Mount of the dead”
3. On the bank of river Indus
4. Believed to have been destructed by flood or in  ......

Features of Indus Valley Civilization

Filed under: History
1. BC. 2700- BC.1900 ie for 800 years.
2. On the valleys of river Indus.
3. Also known as Harappan Civilization.
Beginning of city life.
4. Harappan Sites discovered by – Dayaram 5. Sahni (1921) – Montgomery district, Punjab, Pakistan.
6. Mohanjodaro discovered by – R. D. Banerji – Lark  ......

Short description of Indus valley civilization

Filed under: History
Indus Valley Civilization was the first major civilization in South Asia,  which spread across a vast area of land in present-day India and Pakistan (around 12 lakh

The time period of mature Indus Valley Civilization is estimated between BC. 2700- BC.1900 ie. for 800 years. But early Indu

Third battle of panipat

Filed under: History
The Third Battle of Panipat was fought in 1761 between the Afghan invader Ahmad Shah Abdali and the Marathas under Sadashivrao Bhau Peshwa of Pune. Ahmad Shah won but with a very heavy casualty rate on both sides. It resulted in the worst defeat of Marathas in their history. The war led to a power v  ......

Second battle of panipat

Filed under: History
The Second Battle of Panipat was fought on 5 November 1556 between the forces of Akbar and Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, a King of North India, who belonged to Rewari in Haryana and had captured the large states of Agra and Delhi defeating Akbar’s forces. This king, also known as Vikramaditya h  ......

First battle of panipat

Filed under: History
The First Battle of Panipat was fought between the invading forces of Babur and the Lodi Empire, which took place on 21 April 1526 in North India. It marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire. This was one of the earliest battles involving gunpowderfirearms and field artillery.

In 1526  ......