Geographical factors # Magadha was located on the upper and lower parts of the Gangetic valley. # It was located on the mainland route between west and east India. # The area had fertile soil. It also received enough rainfall. # Magadha was encircled by rivers on three sides, the Ganga, Son and Champa making the region impregnable to enemies. # Both Rajgir and Pataliputra were located in strategic positions. Economic factors # Magadha had huge copper and iron deposits. # Because of its location, it could easily control trade. # Had a large population which could be used for agriculture, mining, building cities and in the army. # The general prosperity of the people and the rulers. # The mastery over Ganga meant economic hegemony. Ganga was important for trade in North India. # With the annexation of Anga by Bimbisara, river Champa was added to the Magadha Empire. Champa was important in the trade with South-East Asia, Sri Lanka and South India. Cultural factors # Magadhan society had an unorthodox character. # It had a good mix of Aryan and non-Aryan peoples. # The emergence of Jainism and Buddhism led to a revolution in terms of philosophy and thought. They enhanced liberal traditions. # Society was not so much dominated by the Brahmanas and many kings of Magadha were ‘low’ in origins. Political factors # Magadha was lucky to have many powerful and ambitious rulers. # They had strong standing armies. Availability of iron enabled them to develop advanced weaponry. # They were also the first kings to use elephants in the army. # The major kings also developed a good administrative system.