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Unit-6: Functions | BCA semester 1

Filed under: BCA Study Material
basic types of functionIn C programming, there are two basic types of functions:Library functions: These are the built-in functions in C that are included in the C library. For example, printf, scanf, strcpy, etc. Library functions are used to perform specific tasks, such as reading from the standar  ......

Unit-3: Control structures : BCA semester 1

Filed under: BCA Study Material
Control structures in C programming allow you to control the flow of execution of your program based on conditions or repetition. There are three main control structures in C:Conditional (if-else) statements: These are used to execute a block of code only if a certain condition is met.Example:int x   ......

C# program to check whether a character is vowel or consonant

Filed under: C#
Here you will find an algorithm and program in C# programming language to check whether the given character is vowel or consonant.Explanation : In English, five alphabets A, E, I, O, and U are called as Vowels. In English, all alphabets other than vowels are Consonant. Algorithm to check whethe  ......

C# Program to Print Fibonacci Series upto N terms

Filed under: C#
Here you will find an algorithm and program in C# programming language to print fibonacci series. First let us understand what fibonacci series means.Explanation : The Fibonacci sequence is a sequence consisting of a series of numbers and each number is the sum of the previous two numbers. For Examp  ......

C# program to swap two numbers without using temporary variable

Filed under: C#
Here you will find an algorithm and program in C# programming language to swap 2 numbers without using any third or temporary variable.Swapping two number : Swap two numbers means exchange the values of two variables with each other. Suppose we are given 2 numbers num1 = 10 and num2 = 20 and we have  ......

C# Program to Find the Sum of Digits in a Given Number

Filed under: C#
Here you will find an algorithm and program in C# programming language to find the sum of digits in number. Now let us understand this.Explanation : Suppose we are having number 12548 and we have to calculate the sum of digits in the given number, so here we have the following digits 1, 2, 5, 4, 8 a  ......

C# Program to Count the Number of Digits in a Number

Filed under: C#
Here you will find an algorithm and program in C# programming language to count number of digits in a number. First let us understand this.Explanation : Suppose an input number is given as 12341 then the output will be 5 as there are 5 digits in the given number and digits are 1, 2, 3, 4, 1.Algorith  ......

C# Program to Check Whether the Given Year is Leap Year or Not

Filed under: C#
Here you will find an algorithm and program in C# programming language to check whether the given year is leap year or not. First let us understand what is leap year?Explanation : A leap year is a calendar year that contains an additional day added to keep the calendar year synchronized. A leap year  ......

C# program to check whether the given number N is even or odd

Filed under: C#
Here you will find an algorithm and program in C# programming language to check whether the given number is even or odd number. First let us understand what is even number and odd number.Explanation : If the number is divisible by 2 then the number is even number and if the number is not divisible b  ......

C# Program to Display Hello World on Screen

Filed under: C#
Here you will find an algorithm and program in C# programming language to print Hello World on screen. The "Hello World" program is the first step towards learning any programming language and also one of the simplest programs you will learn. All you have to do is display the message "Hello World" o  ......

All C++ Functions List Alphabatically

Filed under: C++
##define#elif#else#endif#if#ifdef#ifndef#include#pragma pack#pragma#undef BBeginPaint()BitBlt()BOOLBUTTON CCreateCompatibleDC()CreateFontIndirect()CreateHatchBrush()CreatePatternBrush()CreatePen()CreateSolidBrush()CreateWindow() DDispatchMessage()DefWindowProc()DeleteObject()DrawText(  ......

Arrow Function in JavaScript

Filed under: JavaScript
In this post, we are going to show you arrow function. Watch the below example carefully.<!DOCTYPE html><html><body><h1>JavaScript Functions</h1><h2>The Arrow Function</h2><p>This example shows the syntax of an Arrow Function, and how to use it.&l  ......

For Loop Iteration In JavaScript

Filed under: JavaScript
In this example, we will see for loop iteration. We have taken one blank array. We will push the values in this array using for loop. Below is the complete example of this action.<!DOCTYPE html><html lang="en"><head>   <meta charset="UTF-8">   <meta nam  ......

While Loop example in JavaScript

Filed under: JavaScript
In this post we will see while loop in JavaScript. While loop keep working until the condition is true. As soon as the condition is false it stops.For example we have taken one array here and we will push the values in this array with the help of while loop.<!DOCTYPE html><html lang="en">  ......

Return the Remainder from Two Numbers in JavaScript

Filed under: JavaScript
There is a single operator in JavaScript, capable of providing the remainder of a division operation. Two numbers are passed as parameters. The first parameter divided by the second parameter will have a remainder, possibly zero. Return that value. Examplesremainder(1, 3) ➞ 1remainder(3, 4)   ......

Convert Hours into Seconds in JavaScript

Filed under: JavaScript
Write a function that converts hours into seconds. Examples:howManySeconds(2) ➞ 7200howManySeconds(10) ➞ 36000howManySeconds(24) ➞ 86400Notes:   60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour <script>function howManySeconds(hour){var seconds = hour * 60 * 60 *;} v  ......

Power Calculator in JavaScript

Filed under: JavaScript
Create a function that takes voltage and current and returns the calculated power.Examples:circuitPower(230, 10) ➞ 2300circuitPower(110, 3) ➞ 330circuitPower(480, 20) ➞ 9600Notes:Requires basic calculation of electrical circuits. Power = voltage * current; We will use this calculation in   ......

Return the First Element in an Array in JavaScript

Filed under: JavaScript
Create a function that takes an array containing only numbers and return the first element.Examples:getFirstValue([1, 2, 3]) ➞ 1

getFirstValue([80, 5, 100]) ➞ 80getFirstValue([-500, 0, 50]) ➞ -500Notes:The first element in an array always has an index of 0.Code: <script>function   ......

Convert Age to Days in JavaScript

Filed under: JavaScript
Create a function that takes the age in years and returns the age in days.Examples:calcAge(65) ➞ 23725

calcAge(0) ➞ 0

calcAge(20) ➞ 7300 Notes:Use 365 days as the length of a year for this challenge.Ignore leap years and days between last birthday and now.Expect only positive intege  ......

Convert Minutes into Seconds in JavaScript

Filed under: JavaScript
Write a function that takes an integer minutes and converts it to seconds.Examples:convert(5) ➞ 300

convert(3) ➞ 180

convert(2) ➞ 120 Code<script>function convert(minutes){return minutes * 60;  //1 minutes equals to 60 seconds.}convert(5) // output 300convert(3) // output

Return the Sum of Two Numbers in JavaScript

Filed under: JavaScript
Create a function that takes two numbers as arguments and returns their sum.Examplesaddition(3, 2) ➞ 5

addition(-3, -6) ➞ -9

addition(7, 3) ➞ 10 Code: <script>function addition(a, b){return a+b;} addition(3, 2); //output 5addition(-3, -6); //output -9addition(7, 3); 

Find the largest number among 3 numbers in C++

Filed under: C++
We can use below C++ program to find out the largest number among three numbers.#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main() {
    float First_Number, Second_Number, Third_Number;

    cout << "Enter three numbers: ";
    cin >>  ......

Quantity and Unit in physics

Filed under: Physics
Following are the quantities and units in physics.QuantityUnitLengthMeterForceNewton EnergyJouleResistanceOhmVolumeLitreAngleRadiansPowerWattPotentialVoltTimeSecondCurrentAmpereLuminosity CandelaWorkJoulePressurePascalAreaHectareTemperature DegreesConductivity MhoMagnetic fieldOr

Instruments and mesurements

Filed under: Physics
Following are the instruments and measurements.InstrumentsMeasurementsBarometerPressureThermometerTemperatureAnemometer Wind vane OdometerSpeedScaleLengthBalanceMassRain GaugeRainHygrometerHumidityAmmeterCurrentScrew gauge thicknessSeismograph Earthquake Sphygmomano meter&nb  ......

Data types in C++

int - to store integer data. short, long and unsigned (int, long, short) are two variety of integers which can store integer data in diferent rangesfloat - to store real numbersdouble - to store real number with more precision than floatchar - to store a single letter or symbols.To store a word or s  ......

Header file in C++

Actually the C++ commands are defined in different file which are called header files. When we use a command we must include the header file where it is defined. We include it as #include<iostream.h> where "iostream.h" is a header file. This way we can include as many header files as we need.   ......

What are the problems with TCP IP?

Filed under: Computer
TCP can not keep segment data secure against the message eavesdropping attacks. TCP transports stream data used in the application layer. Since TCP does not provide any data encryption functions, anyone can gain any valuable information. TCP can not protect connections against the unauthorized acces

How TCP IP is made secure?

Filed under: Computer
TCP is a reliable protocol that guarantees delivery of individual packets from the source to the destination. This is accomplished through the use of an acknowledgement system where the receiving system informs the sender that it has received the packet successfully.

What is TCP IP security?

Filed under: Computer
For information on installing and the initial configuration of TCP/IP, refer to the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol section in Networks and communication management. For any number of reasons, the person who administers your system might have to meet a certain level of security.

When did Panchayati Raj start in India?

Filed under: Politics
The Panchayati Raj Institution was formalized by a constitutional amendment in 1992. Prior to this, the institution existed in a few states in India. Panchayati Raj is a system of local self-government in India. It has three tiers,—Gram Panchayat (village level), Panchayat Samiti (block level), an  ......

What are the advantages of Panchayati Raj System?

Filed under: Politics
Panchayati Raj System is a three-tier system of decentralized governance in India. It was introduced in 1992 by the then Prime Minister, P. V. Narasimha Rao. The system consists of Village Panchayats at the base, Intermediate Panchayats at the block level, and District Panchayats at the district lev  ......

What are the significance of Panchayati Raj?

Filed under: Politics
Panchayati Raj is a system of local government in India that was originally instituted by the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992. The Panchayati Raj system has three tiers of government: the Gram Panchayat (village level), the Mandal or Block Panchayat (intermediate level), and the Zila Parisha  ......

What are the objectives of Panchayati Raj?

Filed under: Politics
Panchayati Raj is a system of local self-government in India. It has three tiers at the village, taluk/Mandal, and district levels. The panchayat is the village-level institution while the taluka/Mandal and district are intermediate and upper-tier respectively.The main objectives of Panchayati Raj a  ......

What are the functions of Panchayati Raj?

Filed under: Politics
Panchayati Raj, or the village council, is a form of local self-government in India. It is a three-tier system, with the village panchayat at the bottom, the taluka panchayat at the intermediate level, and the Zila Parishad at the top.The village panchayat is the primary unit of Panchayati raj and i  ......

What are the three tiers of Panchayati Raj?

Filed under: Politics
The Panchayati Raj system is a three-tier system of local government in India. The first tier is the Gram Panchayat, which is the local village council. The second tier is the intermediate Panchayat Samiti, which is a regional body. The third and final tier is the Zila Parishad, which is the distric  ......

What are Panchayati Raj Institutions?

Filed under: Politics
Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) are village, district, and block level self-government bodies in India. They were first established in 1992 by the 73rd Amendment to the Indian Constitution.Panchayati Raj Institutions are responsible for various tasks including water and sanitation, health, educat  ......

How do Panchayati Raj works?

Filed under: Politics
The Panchayati Raj system is a three-tier system of governance in India. The system was first introduced by the Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992. The Panchayati Raj system is composed of the Gram Panchayat (village level), the Mandal Parishad (block level), and the Zila Parishad (district lev  ......

Why Panchayati Raj system is important in India?

Filed under: Politics
The Panchayati Raj system is a key part of India’s democratic setup. It ensures that decisions are taken at the grassroots level and that everyone has a say in how their village or town is run. This system of local self-government is important for several reasons.Firstly, it ensures that people ha  ......

What is DOM?

DOM stands for Document Object Model.  DOM is a programming interface for HTML and XML documents.When the browser tries to render an HTML document, it creates an object based on the HTML document called DOM. Using this DOM, we can manipulate or change various elements inside the HTML document.

Explain WeakSet in javascript

In javascript, a Set is a collection of unique and ordered elements. Just like Set, WeakSet is also a collection of unique and ordered elements with some key differences:Weakset contains only objects and no other type.An object inside the weakset is referenced weakly. This means, that if the object   ......

Why do we use callbacks in Javascript?

A callback function is a method that is sent as an input to another function (now let us name this other function "thisFunction"), and it is performed inside the thisFunction after the function has completed execution.JavaScript is a scripting language that is based on events. Instead of waiting for  ......

Methods to include JavaScript in HTML Code?

Filed under: JavaScript
Javascript can be added to our HTML code in mostly 2 ways:Internal Javascript: Javascript in this case is directly added to the HTML code by adding the JS code inside the <script> tag, which can be placed either inside the <head> or the <body> tags based on the requirement of the u  ......

What are the features of JavaScript?

Filed under: JavaScript
Following are the features of javascript:It was developed with the main intention of DOM manipulation, bringing forth the era of dynamic websites.Javascript functions are objects and can be passed in other functions as parameters.Can handle date and time manipulation.Can perform Form Validation.A co

Differentiate between the macros and the functions

Filed under: C Programming
The differences between macros and functions can be explained as follows:MacrosFunctionsIt is preprocessed rather than compiled.It is compiled not preprocessed.It is preprocessed rather than compiled.Function checks for compilation errors.Code length is increased.Code length remains the same.Macros   ......

What are the features of the C language?

Filed under: C Programming
Some features of the C language are- It is Simple And Efficient. C language is portable or Machine Independent.C is a mid-level Programming Language. It is a structured Programming Language.It has a function-rich library. Dynamic Memory Management.C is super fast.We can use point

Charter Act of 1853

» This was the last of the Charter Acts and it made important changes in the system of Indian legislation.» This Act followed a report of the then Governor General Dalhousie for improving the administration of the company.» A separate Governor for Bengal was to be appointed.» Legislative and adm  ......

Charter Act of 1833

» The Governor General and his Council were given vast powers. This Council could legislate for the whole of India subject to the approval of the Board of Controllers.» The Council got full powers regarding revenue, and a single budget for the country was prepared by the Governor General.» The Ea  ......

Charter Act of 1813

» Trade monopoly of the East India Company came to an end.» Powers of the three Councils of Madras, Bombay and Calcutta were enlarged, they were also subjected to greater control of the British Parliament.» The Christian Missionaries were allowed to spread their religion in India.» Local autonom

Charter Act of 1793

» Main provisions of the previous Acts were consolidated in this Act.» Provided for the payment of salaries of the members of the Board of Controllers from Indian revenue.» Courts were given the power to interpret rules and regulations.

Pitts India Act of 1784

» It was enacted to improve upon the provisions of Regulating Act of 1773 to bring about better discipline in the Company's system of administration.» A 6-member Board of Controllers was set up which was headed by a minister of the British Government. All political responsibilities were given to t  ......

Regulating Act of 1773

» This Act was based on the report of a committee headed by the British Prime Minister Lord North.» Governance of the East India Company was put under British parliamentary control.» The Governor of Bengal was nominated as Governor General for all the three Presidencies of Calcutta, Bombay and Ma  ......

What is Indian Constitution?

Constitution is the foundational law of a country which ordains the fundamental principles on which the government (or the governance) of that country is based. It lays down the framework and principal functions of various organs of the government as well as the modalities of interaction between the  ......

Why do we need to define any variable in a program?

Filed under: C Programming
The variable definition in C language tells the compiler about how much storage it should be creating for the given variable and where it should create the storage. Basically, the variable definition helps in specifying the data type. It contains a list of one variable or multiple ones as follows:ty

Why do we declare a variable in a program?

Filed under: C Programming
Declaring a variable provides the compiler with an assurance that there is a variable that exists with that very given name. This way, the compiler will get a signal to proceed with the further compilation without needing the complete details regarding that variable.The declaration of variables is u  ......

Classification of Variables in C

Filed under: C Programming
The variables can be of the following basic types, based on the name and the type of the variableGlobal Variable: A variable that gets declared outside a block or a function is known as a global variable. Any function in a program is capable of changing the value of a global variable. It means that   ......

Rules for Naming a Variable in C

Filed under: C Programming
Here are the rules that we must follow when naming it:1. The name of the variable must not begin with a digit.2. A variable name can consist of digits, alphabets, and even special symbols such as an underscore ( _ ).3. A variable name must not have any keywords, for instance, float, int, etc.4. Ther  ......

What is NaN property in JavaScript?

NaN property represents the “Not-a-Number” value. It indicates a value that is not a legal number.typeof of NaN will return a Number.To check if a value is NaN, we use the isNaN() function,Note- isNaN() function converts the given value to a Number type, and then equates to NaN.isNaN("Hello") &n  ......

The Disadvantages of Recursion Processes in C

Filed under: C Programming
When you are using Recursion in C programming, you have to face some issues. Following are the disadvantage of using recursion in C Programming.Any recursive program is generally much slower than any non-recursive program. It is because the recursive programs have to make the function calls. Thus, i  ......

When Does the Recursion Occur in C?

Filed under: C Programming
The recursion process in C refers to the process in which the program repeats a certain section of code in a similar way. In C Programming if a function calls itself from inside the same function is called recursion. The function which calls itself is called a recursive function and the function cal  ......

Explain Hoisting in javascript

Hoisting is the default behaviour of javascript where all the variable and function declarations are moved on top.This means that irrespective of where the variables and functions are declared, they are moved on top of the scope. The scope can be both local and global.Example 1:hoistedVariable = 3;

What are the benefits of CSS sprites?

Benefits of using CSS sprites areIt is a technique where one has a large image containing a set of small images. Those images can be broken down with the help of CSS to disintegrate into multiple images.It helps large images or pages to load faster hence, saving a lot of time. It cuts back HTTP requ  ......

What are the advantages of CSS?

There are a number of advantages of CSS,It gives lots of flexibility for setting the properties of the elementEasy maintenanceIt allows separation of content of the HTML document from the style and layout of the content basicallyLoading of pages at a faster paceCompatibility with multiple deviceIncr

What is CSS?

Cascading style sheets or CSS is a web designing language simple for HTML elements. The application is commonly known as XHTML. It is basically used to simplify the process and make the web page look presentable.

What are the different data types present in javascript?

Filed under: Javascript
To know the type of a JavaScript variable, we can use the typeof operator.Primitive types String - It represents a series of characters and is written with quotes. A string can be represented using a single or a double quote.Example :var str = "Vivek Singh Bisht"; //using double quotes
var str  ......

List some features of JavaScript

Filed under: JavaScript
Some of the features of JavaScript are:
1.    Lightweight
2.    Interpreted programming language
3.    Good for the applications which are network-centric
4.    Complementary to Java
5.    Complementary to HTML
6.    Open source
7.    Cross-platform 

What is JavaScript?

Filed under: JavaScript
JavaScript is a scripting language. It is different from Java language. It is object-based, lightweight, cross-platform translated language. It is widely used for client-side validation. The JavaScript Translator (embedded in the browser) is responsible for translating the JavaScript code for the we

Stop! It can rain diamonds on other planets

Filed under: Science Facts
The atmospheres in Neptune, Uranus, and Saturn have such extreme pressure that they can crystallize carbon atoms and turn them into diamonds, American Scientist reports. How do we know this science fact? Researchers were able to create the correct conditions in a lab to prove this occurs on Neptune   ......

Earth’s oxygen is produced by the ocean

Filed under: Science Facts
Have you ever stopped to think where oxygen comes from? Your first thought may be a rainforest, but here’s a cool science fact for you: We can thank plant-based marine organisms for all that fresh air, according to the National Oceanic Service. Plankton, seaweed, and other photosynthesizers produc

A laser can get trapped in water

Filed under: Science Facts
A cool thing called “total internal reflection” happens when you point a laser beam at a jet of flowing water. To demonstrate this phenomenon, PBS Learning Media released a video in which a laser is positioned on one side of a clear tank of water. When the light travels through the water, it is   ......

The human stomach can dissolve razor blades

Filed under: Science Facts
If you ever swallow a razor blade, don’t panic. The human body is more capable than you think. Acids are ranked on a scale from 0 to 14—the lower the pH level, the stronger the acid. Human stomach acid is typically 1.0 to 2.0, meaning that it has an incredibly strong pH. In a study published in   ......

What is Mirage and How it is formed

Filed under: Physics
A Mirage is a naturally occurring optical phenomenon in which light rays bend to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky.

(a) It is caused due to Total internal Reflection.
(b) It is an optical illusion observed in deserts or hot summer days due to which a person sees a pond of w  ......

Einstein’s theory of general relativity

Filed under: Physics
In 1905, Albert Einstein determined that the laws of physics are the same for all non-accelerating observers and that the speed of light in a vacuum was independent of the motion of all observers.

As a result, he found that space and time were interwoven into a single continuum known as space-tim  ......

Indo Greek Invasion

Filed under: Ancient History
The arrival of the Yavanas in India marked by their invasion on the western border of India.

Indo greek
After Alexander’s death, a large part of his empire came under the rule of his Generals.

Bactria and Parthia, the adjoining areas of Iran were two main areas under the rule of Alexander  ......

History of Rashtrakutas

Rashtrakutas built an empire which in the days of greatness extended from Malwa (central India) and Gujrath to Tanjore in south, effectively covering whole of south India. Rashtrakutas, who inherited Chalukyan empire, extended it further by penetrating in deep north and occupying Gangatic doab regio  ......

Partition of Bengal 1905

The partition of Bengal in 1905 was one measure which created deep discontentment among the Indians, The province of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha was divided into two parts. The original province included western Bengal, Bihar and Odisha and the new province included Assam and eastern Bengal. Curzon ple  ......

Chera Dynasty

The Cheras were also known as ‘Keralaputras’ in the history. The Chera kingdom occupied the region of a narrow strip between the sea and the mountains of Konkan range.

Chera Kingdom
The Chera rulers also occupied high position in the history of south India. Nedunjeral Adan was a famous Chera  ......

Significance of weathering to human life

Filed under: Geography UPSC
Weathering is the initial stage in the formation of soil.

It produces other natural resources, for instance, clay which is used for making bricks.

Another significance is weathering weakens rocks making them easier for people to exploit, for example, by mining and quarrying
This process is ac  ......

Science Equipments and their uses

Filed under: Science
Audiophone	It is used for improving imperfect sense of hearing.

Audiometer	It measures intensity of sound.

Anemometer	It measures force and velocity of wind.

Ammeter	It measures strength of electric current (in amperes)

Altimeter	It measures altitudes and is used in aircrafts

Balomete  ......

30+ Abbreviations of ASP .Net language

Filed under: Computer
Abbreviation	Stands for
ASP	Active Server Pages
ADO	ActiveX Data Object
CLR	Common Language Runtime
CTS	Common Type Specifications
CLS	Common Language Specifications
CIL	Common Intermediate Language
CAS	Code Access Security
CCW	COM Callable Wrapper
COFF	Common Object File Format
COM	Compon  ......

History of Pandya Dynasty

The Pandya kingdom was the second important kingdom in south India during this period. It occupied the region of modern districts of Tirunelveli, Ramnad, and Madurai in Tamil Nadu.

The capital of Pandya kingdom was Madurai. The Pandyan kingdom was very wealthy and prosperous.

The Sangam litera  ......

History of Cholas Dynasty

# The Cholas have occupied the region of Kaveri delta and the adjoining area. The region of Kanchi was also part of the Cholas kingdom.

# Cholas kingdom
The Kingdom was situated towards the north-east of Pandya kingdom and it was also called as Cholamandalam in early medieval times.

# In the   ......

Pala Dynasty

Pala Dynasty was the ruling Dynasty in Bihar and Bengal India, from the 8th to the 12th century.  Called the Palas because all their names ended in Pala, "protector".  The Palas rescued Bengal from the chaos into which it had fallen after the death of Shashanka, a rival of Harsha of Kanauj.  The fou  ......

History of Pallavas

Pallavas,the pastoral tribe emerged as a powerful ruler and commanded the region ofThondaimandalam.from its capital located at Pallavapuri (Bhavatri, of Nellore in theAndhra). They were of sect "Thiraiyar" and the region they ruled was called"Thondaimandalam". With the capital washed away by the sea  ......

Learn Top 20 Physics questions

Filed under: Physics
Q&A 1. Energy of the Sun is generated by – Nuclear fusion 

Q&A 2. When the TV is switched on,- Visualization starts immediately, but audio is heard later, because sound travels at a lower velocity than light.

Q&A 3. Which principle is used to produce minimum temperature – superconductivity  ......

The Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005

Filed under: Politics
The Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005 was enacted to remove gender discriminatory provisions in the Hindu Succession Act, 1956. Under the amendment, the daughter of a coparcener shall by birth become a coparcener in her own right in the same manner as the son. This amendment also repeats sectio  ......

History of Kushana Empire

In the early 2nd century BC, a tribe on the Central Asian frontier of China called Hsiung-nu defeated a neighboring one known as Yueh-chih. After more conflict, the survivors of the Yueh-chih were dislocated west, passing down the Ili river valley and along the southern shore of lake Issyk Kul. This  ......

Women in Buddhism and Jainism for UPSC IAS

Women in Buddhism and Jainism

The 6th century BCE in the Indian subcontinent was a dynamic period. It witnessed several changes that had long-lasting consequences. Firstly, the period witnessed the rise of territorial kingdoms known as Mahajanapadas. Secondly, the Indian subcontinent witnessed th  ......

Chola Dynasty in Indian History

The Cholas are the earliest and the most ancient among the South Indian royal houses. The artifacts of the period found in South India mention Mahabharata as well as Ashokan edicts.

The CholaKingdom is very ancient, there has been references made in Mahabharatha and even in Ashokan inscriptions.   ......

The Pandyan Dynasty Indian History

The Pandyas were one of the three small Dhravidian races that occupied the southern extremity of India. Around 700 BC, Dhravidians must have penetrated into S.India and organized themselves into distinguishable communities. Titles such as Solan, Pandiyan, and Keralas proves the existence of such a c  ......

Kanva Dynasty Indian History

Kanva dynasty had a Brahmanic origin. The dynasty was named after the gotra of the ruler Kanva. The Kanva dynasty was founded by Vasudeva Kanva. It is believed that Vasudeva Kanva killed the Shunga ruler Devabhuti and established his own empire in 72 BCE.

Kanva dynasty had a ruling phase from 72   ......

Vijay Nagar Empire - Indian History

Foundation of Vijaynagar empire is certainly the most significant event in the history of medieval India. It lasted for 3 centuries and successfully prevented the extension of Muslim sultanetes in south. History of Vijaynagar empire is truly an unbroken era of bloody wars with Bahamani and other Mus  ......

Maratha Empire Indian History

The Marathas' rise to power was a dramatic turning point that accelerated the demise of Muslim dominance in India. Maratha chieftains were originally in the service of Bijapur sultans in the western Deccan, which was under siege by the Mughals. Shivaji Bhonsle (1627 - 1680 AD) is recognized as the "  ......

Rulers of Chalukya Dynasty

# Jayasimha was the first ruler of the Chalukyas.

1. Pulakesin I (Reign: 543 AD – 566 AD)

#  Founded the empire with his capital at Vatapi.
# Performed Ashwamedha.

2.  Kirtivarman I (Reign: 566 AD – 597 AD)

# Son of Pulakesin I.
# Conquered Konkan and northern Kerala.

3. Mangale  ......

Types of Ocean Currents

Filed under: Geography Currents
 Warm Ocean Currents:

# Those currents which flow from equatorial regions towards poles which have a higher surface temperature and are called warm current.
# They bring warm waters to the cold regions.
# They are usually observed on the east coast of the continents in the lower and middle lati  ......

What are waves and tides

Filed under: Geography Currents

# Waves are nothing but the oscillatory movements that result in the rise and fall of water surface.
# Waves are a kind of horizontal movements of the ocean water.
# They are actually the energy, not the water as such, which moves across the ocean surface.
# This energy for the waves is   ......

Gram Nyayalayas: Village Courts in India

Filed under: Politics
Gram Nyayalayas are village courts for speedy and easy access to the justice system in the rural areas of India.
The establishment of Gram Nyayalayas in India can be traced to the Gram Nyayalayas Act, 2008 passed by the Parliament of India.
Even though the target was to set up 5000 village courts   ......

What are Smritis | Ancient History

# The Smritis have continued to play a very important role in Hindu life as it were playing since the last two thousand years.

# The Smritis explained the religious duties, usage, laws, and social customs.

# The Smritis are the expanded version of the Dharmasutras, which covered the period fro  ......

Sangam Literature

# Tamil language is the oldest one among the south Indian languages. The earliest phase of Tamil literature is associated with the three Sangams.

# Sangams were the societies of learned men established by the Pandya kingdom. Each Sangam comprises of a number of distinguished poets and learned sch  ......

Small Dynasty in Indian History

Apart from some important dynasties ruling in the post-Mauryan period in north India, there were a number of republics ruling smaller states. The information about these small dynasties is extracted from their coins on which their names were written.

Following are some of the important small dyna  ......

Early History of South India

# During the 1,000 B.C., the present states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala (in southern India) were inhabited by megalithic people.

# The important phase of the ancient history of south India is from the Megalithic period to about A.D. 300.

Megalithic Phase:

The literary meaning of the term megal  ......

Sunga Dynasty in short

The last Mauryan king Brithadratha was killed by his commander-in-chief Pushyamitra Sunga in 185 BC. He did so on being disgusted with his ruler's policy of the so-called non-violence that stood in the way of his leading a campaign against the alien invaders who had occupied a big chunk of North-Wes  ......

Nanda Dynasty in Brief

The first Magadha dynasty was overthrown by the usurper Mahapadna, founder of the Nanda dynasty, son of a low-caste woman. He established his capital in Pataliputra (eastern Bihar) at the time that Alexander was campaigning in the Indus river valley (327-324). The Nandas ruled Magadha between 364 B.  ......

Shishunaga Dynasty

Pradyota assents the throne of Avanti ending the Brhadratha Dynasty and commencing the Pradyota Dynasty of Magadha.

The Mahavamsa states that Ajatasattu's son Udayabhadra succeeded Ajatasattu and ruled for the next sixteen years. He moved his capital to the bank of Ganges which was known as Patal  ......

Haryanka Dynasty History

Pradyota became king of Avanti ending the Brhadratha Dynasty and commencing the Haryanka Dynasty of Magadha. The Haryanka king Bimbsara was responsible for expanding the boundries of his kingdom through matrimonial alliances and conquest. Bimbsara was the contemporary to Buddha. Bimbsara was impriso  ......

Kalinga Kingdom

Kalinga is mentioned in the ancient scriptures as Kalinga the Braves (Kalinga Sahasikha). During the 3rd century B.C. the Greek ambassador Megasthenes in his tour of India had mentioned about the military strength of the Kalinga army of about one lakh which consisted of 60 thousand soldiers, 1700 ho  ......

Kosala Kingdom

Kosala was an ancient Indian kingdom, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Oudh. in what is now south-central Uttar Pradesh state, it extended into present-day Nepal. Its capital was Ayodhya. In the 6th century BC it rose to become one of the dominant states in northern India. Kosala for  ......

Ghandahra Kingdom

Ghandahra is the name of an ancient Mahajanapada in northern Pakistan and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir and eastern Afghanistan. Gandhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau and on the northern side of the Kabul River. Its main cities were Peshawar and Taxila.

T  ......

Kuru Kingdom

Kuru was the name of an Indo-Aryan tribe and their kingdom in the Vedic civilization of India. Their kingdom was located in the area of modern Haryana. They formed the first political center of the Indo-Aryans after the Rigvedic period, and after their emergence from the Punjab, and it was there tha  ......

Mahajanpadas in details

There were many states of the Aryans in North India, around the 6th century B. C. These states were called the 'Mahajanapadas'. The Mahajanapadas of Anga, Kashi, Kosala, Chedi, Vatsa, Matsya, Shursen, Ashmak, Avanti, Gandhar and Magadha were ruled by kings or monarchs. The kings in these states had   ......

Verdhaman Mahavir History

Birth name of Mahavir was Vardhman. The different names Ativir , Sanmati , Mahavir were the titles conferred upon him for his acts of boldness and bravery at different occasions. He was born in a princely family with all the comforts of life were available to him but child Mahavir did not evince int  ......

Gautam Buddha History

Siddhartha Gautama was a prince who lived in the kingdom of Sakyas, near the present day border of India and Nepal, more than 2500 years ago. The young prince was raised in great luxury, but he was not happy. He wanted to understand what caused human suffering. He did not understand why some people   ......

Describe Yajurveda

Filed under: History Vedic Period
“Yajus” means worship, and “Veda” means knowledge, so Yajur Veda is devoted to the worship of the Gods. It primarily contains prose mantras for worship rituals. It describes the way to perform religious rituals as well as sacred ceremonies.

In simple terms, Yajurveda can be understood as   ......

Legislative council and its important

Filed under: Politics
India has a bicameral system i.e., two Houses of Parliament. At the state level, the equivalent of the Lok Sabha is the Vidhan Sabha or Legislative Assembly; that of the Rajya Sabha is the Vidhan Parishad or Legislative Council.


Why do we need a second house?

1. To act as a check on hasty  ......

Who were Aryans in History

# About 1500 B.C., groups of warlike people left their homes in central Asia, possibly near the Caucasus Mountains, and came to India. These people called themselves arya (kinsmen or nobles). They are now known as the Aryans. The Aryans are said to have entered India through the fabled Khyber pass,   ......

Dravidian history

Dravidian is the name given to a linguistically related group of people in India. They are said to be the first original settlers of ancient India. Dravidian culture is very diverse, with some groups maintaining more traditional customs such as totemism and matralinealism, while others have develope  ......


Filed under: Ethics
Ethics can be looked at from another point of view. In fact, the best way of approaching  any subject is to consider the problems which it analyses. A simple way of understanding moral problems is to consider the manner in which we take moral decisions. The elements involved in moral decision-making  ......

What is Ethics for UPSC

Filed under: Ethics
Ethics has been defined in various ways. The purpose of a definition is to describe its subject concisely and yet completely. Although there are many definitions of Ethics, a common thread runs through them. They are in fact different ways of looking at Ethics. We begin our discussion with some comm  ......

Extension of Chalukya Dynasty

The Chalukyas ruled parts of Southern and Central India between the 6th century and the 12th century.

# The Chalukya dynasty reached its peak during the reign of Pulakesin II.

# His grandfather Pulakesin I had created an empire around Vatapi.

# Pulakesin II subjugated the Kadambas, the Gang  ......

Origin of Kushana Empire Ancient History

Kushans or Kuei-Shang were one of the five Great Yueh-chi (tribes) principalities. In the 1st century CE, Kujula Kadphises (Kadphises I) brought together these five principalities and founded the Kushan Empire. The Kushans movement in India can be traced back to the first century CE during Kadphises  ......

The decline of the Kushana Empire

# Kanishka was succeeded by his son Vasishka.
# Vasishka was followed by Huvishka and Kanishka II (son of Vasishka).
# Kanishka II was followed by Vasudeva I.
# Vasudeva I was the last great king of the Kushanas. After his death, the empire disintegrated away. He probably died in 232 AD

After   ......

Kanishka of Kushan Dynasty

# He rules from 127 AD – 150 AD.
# Considered the greatest Kushana king and also a great king of ancient India.
# Son of Vima Kadphises.
# His kingdom included Afghanistan, parts of Sindhu, parts of Parthia, Punjab, Kashmir, parts of Magadha (including Pataliputra), Malwa, Benaras, perhaps part  ......

Life of Gautam Buddha and Buddhism

#  Buddhism was founded by Gautama Buddha.
 # Buddha was born as Prince Siddhartha at Lumbini near Kapilavastu (in present Nepal) in 566 BC.
# He was the son of Suddhodhana and Mahamaya. Suddhodhana was the chief of the Sakya clan. Due to this, Buddha was also known as ‘Sakyamuni’.
# His moth  ......

Chedi Dynasty Ancient History

# The Chedi/Cheti dynasty rose in Kalinga in the 1st century BCE.
# The Hathigumpha inscription situated near Bhubaneswar talks about this.
# This inscription was engraved by king Kharavela who was the third Cheti king.
# King Kharavela followed Jainism.
# Chedi dynasty was also known as Cheta o

Brief description of Kanva Dynasty

# According to the Puranas, there were 4 kings of the Kanva dynasty who were, Vasudeva, Bhumimitra, Narayana and Susarman.
# The Kanvas were said to be Brahmins.
The Magadha Empire had declined by this time to a great extent.
# The Northwest region was under the Greeks and parts of the Gangetic p  ......

Is Newton's Third Law of Motion is incorrect

Filed under: Science
Sir Isaac Newton who propounded the laws of motion. He gave his three laws related to motion. Two rules are correct for them but there is some inaccuracy in the third rule, so let's see what is it? Newton's third law was that for every action there is an equal opposite reaction, for example if we se  ......

What are the Teachings of Jainism

# Mahavira rejected Vedic principles.

# He did not believe in God’s existence. According to him, the universe is a product of the natural phenomenon of cause and effect.

# He believed in Karma and transmigration of the soul. The body dies but the soul does not.

# One will be punished or r  ......

Causes of the rise of Jainism

# Vedic religion had become highly ritualistic.

# Jainism was taught in Pali and Prakrit thus was more accessible to the common man as compared to Sanskrit.

# It was accessible to people of all castes.

# Varna system had rigidified and people of the lower castes led miserable lives. Jainism  ......

Who was founder of Jainism

Founder of Jainism – Vardhaman Mahavira (539- 467 B.C.)
Here are some great points about Verdhaman Mahavira.

# Considered the last Tirthankara.

# He was born at Kundagrama near Vaisali.

# His parents were Kshatriyas. Father – Siddhartha (Head of Jnatrika Clan); Mother – Trishala (Sis  ......

Origin of Jainism Ancient History

Vardhana Mahavira was the 24th Tirthankara (a great teacher) and is said to have propounded Jainism.

Origin of Jainism:

# Jainism is a very ancient religion. As per some traditions, it is as old as the Vedic religion.

# The Jain tradition has a succession of great teachers or Tirthankaras.

Explain Gautam Buddha Life for UPSC

Gautam Buddha’s teachings revolve around the middle path of the living, the eight-fold path to enlightenment, and four noble truths. This article will provide you with relevant NCERT notes on Buddha, Buddha’s philosophy and teachings of Gautam Buddha, for the IAS Exam.

 #   Buddhism was fou  ......

Later Vedic Period Vedic Civilization

Later Vedic Period or Painted Grey Ware Phase (1000 BC – 600 BC)

During this time, the Aryans moved eastwards and occupied western and eastern UP (Kosala) and Bihar.

Political structure:

# Kingdoms like Mahajanapadas were formed by amalgamating smaller kingdoms.
# King’s power increase  ......

Early Vedic Period Vedic Civilization

Early Vedic Period or Rig Vedic Period (1500 BC – 1000 BC)

Initially, the Aryans lived in the land known as “Sapta Sindhu” (Land of the Seven Rivers). These seven rivers were: Sindhu (Indus), Vipash (Beas), Vitasta (Jhelum), Parushni (Ravi), Asikni (Chenab), Shutudri (Satluj) and Saraswati.  ......

Indo-Aryan Migration to Vedic Civilization

# The Aryans were a semi-nomadic pastoral people.

# The original homeland of the Aryans is a matter of debate with different experts suggesting different regions from where they originated.

# Some say they came from the area around the Caspian Sea in Central Asia (Max Muller), while others thi  ......

Explain Upnishads Vedic Literature

A few important points about Upanishads are mentioned below:

# There are 108 Upanishads
# Out of 108 Upanishads, 13 are considered the major ones.
# The concepts of ‘Atman’ and ‘Brahman’ are majorly explained by Upanishads.

It contains philosophical ideas about the following concepts

Brahamanas Vedic Literature

They are the prose texts that explain the hymns in the Vedas and are also the classification of Sanskrit texts that are embedded within each Veda, incorporating myths and legends to explain and instruct Brahmins on the performance of Vedic rituals. In addition to explaining the symbolism and meaning  ......

Types of Vedic Literature

There are broadly two types of Vedic literature:

Shruti Literature – The word ‘Shruti’ from the term ‘Shruti Literature’ means ‘to hear’ and describes the sacred texts which comprise of Vedas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, & Upanishads. Shruti Literature is canonical, consisting of revelati  ......

Vedic Literature What are Vedas?

The Vedas are the large bodies of religious text that is composed of Vedic Sanskrit and originated in ancient India. They form the oldest scriptures of Hinduism and the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature. The Vedas are said to have passed on through verbal transmission from one generation to the ne  ......

Features of Rigveda

# It is the oldest form of Veda and oldest known Vedic Sanskrit text(1800 – 1100 BCE).

# The meaning of the word ‘Rigveda’ is Praise Knowledge.

# It has 10600 verses.

# Out of 10 books or mandalas, book number 1 and 10 are the youngest ones as they were written later than books 2 to 9  ......

Features of Samaveda

# There are 1549 verses (except 75 verses, all have been taken from Rigveda).

# There are two Upanishads embedded in Samaveda – Chandogya Upanishad and Kena Upanishad.

# The Samaveda is considered as the root of the Indian classical music and dance.

# It is considered as the storehouse of  ......

Features of Yajurveda

#. It has two types – Krishna (Black/Dark) & Shukla (White/Bright).

# Krishna Yajurveda has an un-arranged, unclear, motley collection of verses.

# Shukla Yajurveda has arranged and clear verses.

# The oldest layer of Yajurveda has 1875 verses mostly taken up from Rigveda.

# The middle  ......

Features of Atharvaveda

# The daily procedures of life are very well enumerated in this Veda.

# It has 730 hymns/suktas, 6000 mantras, and 20 books.

# Paippalada and the Saunakiya are two surviving recensions of Atharvaveda.

# Called a Veda of magical formulas, it includes three primary Upanishads – Mundaka Upan  ......

Types of Vedas

There are four types of Vedas – Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda. One of the best sources of Ancient Indian History is Vedic literature. Vedas have formed the Indian scripture. The ideas and practices of Vedic religion are codified by the Vedas and they also form the basis of classica  ......

Describe Rigveda for UPSC

Rigveda is regarded as one of the most sacred texts of Hinduism. It has fascinated scholars and historians due to its significance and antiquity. It is a collection of ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.

# The Rigveda is divided into ten books which are known as Mandalas

# It is  ......

The decline of Indus Valley Civilization

1. Causes of the decline of this civilization have not been firmly established. Archaeologists now believe that the civilization did not come to an abrupt end but gradually declined. People moved eastwards and cities were abandoned. Writing and trade declined.

2. Mortimer Wheeler suggested that t  ......

Indus Valley Civilization Important Sites

1. In India: Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Lothal, Dholavira, Rangpur, Surkotda (Gujarat), Banawali (Haryana), Ropar (Punjab). In Pakistan: Harappa (on river Ravi), Mohenjodaro (on Indus River in Sindh), Chanhudaro (in Sindh).

2. The civilization was first discovered during an excavation campaign under  ......

Indus Valley Civilization

:- The Indus Valley Civilization was established around 3300 BC. It flourished between 2600 BC and 1900 BC (Mature Indus Valley Civilization). It started declining around 1900 BC and disappeared around 1400 BC.

:- This is also called Harappan Civilization after the first city to be excavated, Har  ......

Important Chalcolithic Sites

1. Ahar (Banas valley, South Eastern Rajasthan) – The people of this region practised smelting and metallurgy, supplied copper tools to other contemporary communities. Rice was cultivated here.

2. Gilund (Banas valley, Rajasthan) – Stone blade industry was discovered here.
Daimabad  (Ahmadna  ......

Characteristics of the Chalcolithic Age

1. Agriculture & cattle rearing – The people living in the stone-copper age domesticated animals and cultivated food grains. They domesticated cows, sheep, goats, pig and buffaloes and hunted deer. It is not clear whether they were acquainted with the horse or not. People ate beef but did not take  ......

Chalcolithic Age Stone Copper Age

The Chalcolithic Age marked the emergence of the use of metal along with stone tools. The first metal to be used was copper. The chalcolithic age largely applied to the pre-Harappan phase, but in many parts of the country, it appears after the end of the bronze Harappan culture.

Important Neolithic Sites Ancient History

1. Koldihwa and Mahagara (lying south of Allahabad) – This site provides evidence of circular huts along with crude hand made pottery. There is also evidence of rice, which is the oldest evidence of rice, not only in India but anywhere in the world.

2. Mehrgarh (Balochistan, Pakistan) – The e  ......

Important Mesolithic Sites Ancient History

1. Bagor in Rajasthan is one of the biggest and best-documented Mesolithic sites in India. Bagor is on river Kothari where microliths along with animal bones and shells have been excavated.

2. Adamgarh in Madhya Pradesh provides the earliest evidence for the domestication of animals.

3. There   ......

Mesolithic Period Middle Stone Age

The term Mesolithic is derived from two Greek words – ‘meso’ and ‘lithic’. In Greek ‘meso’ means middle and ‘lithic’ means stone. Hence, the Mesolithic stage of prehistory is also known as the ‘Middle Stone Age’.

Both Mesolithic and Neolithic phases belong to the Holocene er  ......

Upper Palaeolithic age

The upper palaeolithic age coincided with the last phase of the ice age when the climate became comparatively warmer and less humid.
Emergence of Homo sapiens.
The period is marked by innovation in tools and technology. A lot of bone tools, including needles, harpoons, parallel-sided blades, fishi  ......

Middle Palaeolithic age

Tools used were flakes, blades, pointers, scrapers and borers.
The tools were smaller, lighter and thinner.
There was a decrease in the use of hand axes with respect to other tools.
Important middle Palaeolithic age sites:

Belan valley in UP
Luni valley (Rajasthan)
Son and Narmada rivers
Bh  ......

Main characteristics of the Palaeolithic age

1. The Indian people are believed to have belonged to the ‘Negrito’ race, and lived in the open air, river valleys, caves and rock shelters.
2. They were food gatherers, ate wild fruits and vegetables, and lived on hunting.
There was no knowledge of houses, pottery, agriculture. It was only in  ......

Palaeolithic Age Old Stone Age

The term ‘Palaeolithic’ is derived from the Greek word ‘palaeo’ which means old and ‘lithic’ meaning stone. Therefore, the term Palaeolithic age refers to the old stone age. The old stone age or palaeolithic culture of India developed in the Pleistocene period or the Ice Age, which is a   ......

Stone Age Ancient History

The stone age is the prehistoric period, i.e., the period before the development of the script, therefore the main source of information for this period is the archaeological excavations. Robert Bruce Foote is the archaeologist who discovered the first palaeolithic tool in India, the Pallavaram hand  ......

What is Clouds

Filed under: Geography Clouds
1. A cloud is an accumulation or grouping of tiny water droplets and ice crystals that are suspended in the earth atmosphere.

2. They are masses that consist of huge density and volume and hence it is visible to naked eyes.

3. There are different types of Clouds. They differ from each other in  ......

Volcanic Landforms

Filed under: Geography Volcano
1. The lava that is released during volcanic eruptions on cooling develops into igneous rocks.

2. The cooling may take place either on reaching the surface or from the inside itself.

3. Depending on the location of the cooling of lava, igneous rocks are classified as:

Mid-Ocean Ridge Volcanoes

Filed under: Geography Volcano
1. These volcanoes occur in the oceanic areas.

2. There is a system of mid-ocean ridges more than 70,000 km long that stretches through all the ocean basins.

3. The central portion of this ridge experiences frequent eruptions.

Caldera Volcano

Filed under: Geography Volcano
1. These are the most explosive of the earth’s volcanoes.

2. They are usually so explosive that when they erupt they tend to collapse on themselves rather than building any tall structure. The collapsed depressions are called calderas.

3. Their explosiveness indicates that its magma chamber   ......

Composite Volcanoes

Filed under: Geography Volcano
1. Shape: Cone shaped with moderately steep sides and sometimes have small craters in their summits.

2. Volcanologists call these “strato-” or composite volcanoes because they consist of layers of solid lava flows mixed with layers of sand- or gravel-like volcanic rock called cinders or volca  ......

Cinder Cone Volcanoes

Filed under: Geography Volcano
1. Cinders are extrusive igneous rocks. A more modern name for cinder is Scoria.
2. Small volcanoes.
3. These volcanoes consist almost entirely of loose, grainy cinders and almost no lava.
4. They have very steep sides and usually have a small crater on top.

Shield Volcanoes

Filed under: Geography Volcano
1. How to identify: They are not very steep but are far and wider. They extend to great height as well as distance.
2. They are the largest of all volcanoes in the world as the lava flows to a far distance. The Hawaiian volcanoes are the most famous examples.
3. Shield volcanoes have low slopes an  ......