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Indus Valley Civilization Important Sites

Filed under: History Ancient History on 2021-06-10 15:32:09
1. In India: Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Lothal, Dholavira, Rangpur, Surkotda (Gujarat), Banawali (Haryana), Ropar (Punjab). In Pakistan: Harappa (on river Ravi), Mohenjodaro (on Indus River in Sindh), Chanhudaro (in Sindh).

2. The civilization was first discovered during an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921–22 at Harappa following the discovery of seals by J Fleet.

3. Harappan ruins were discovered by Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats.

4. Mohenjodaro ruins were excavated for the first time by R.D. Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay and Marshall.

5. The Indus Valley cities show a level of sophistication and advancement not seen in other contemporary civilizations.
Most cities had similar patterns. There were two parts: a citadel and the lower town.

6. Most cities had a Great Bath.
There were also granaries, 2-storied houses made of burnt bricks, closed drainage lines, excellent stormwater, and wastewater management system, weights for measurements, toys, pots, etc.

7. A large number of seals have been discovered.

8. Agriculture was the most important occupation. The first civilization to cultivate cotton.

9. Animals were domesticated like sheep, goats, and pigs.

10. Crops were wheat, barley, cotton, ragi, dates, and peas.

11. Trade was conducted with the Sumerians.

12. Metal products were produced including those with copper, bronze, tin, and lead. Gold and silver were also known. Iron was not known to them.

13. No structures like temples or palaces have been found.

14. The people worshipped male and female deities. A seal which was named ‘Pashupati Seal’ has been excavated and it shows an image of a three-eyed figure. 

15. Marshall believed this to be an early form of Lord Shiva.

16. Excellent pieces of red pottery designed in black have been excavated. Faience was used to make beads, bangles, earrings, and vessels.

17. Civilization also was advanced in making artworks. A statuette named ‘Dancing Girl’ has been found from Mohenjodaro and is believed to be 4000 years old. A figure of a bearded Priest-King has also been found from Mohenjodaro.
Lothal was a dockyard.

18. Disposal of the dead was by burial in wooden coffins. Later on, in the H Symmetry culture, bodies were cremated in urns.

19. The Indus Valley script has not yet been deciphered.
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