Turkey had aligned itself in the First World War with Germany - led Axis powers that were defeated by Great Britain - led Allied powers. The political - conscious Muslims were critical of British and their allies treatment of the Turkish (Ottoman) Empire that had divided it and properly removed Thrace from Turkey. The Muslims also regarded the Sultan of Turkey as the Caliph or the religious head of the Muslims and they strongly felt that his position over the Muslim religious places should not be undermined. Under the leadership of the Ali Brothers (Maulana Mohammed Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali), Maulana Azad, Hakim Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani, and countrywide Khilafat agitation, a Khilafat Committee was soon formed. The All - India Khilafat Conference held in November 1919 in Delhi decided to withdraw all government cooperation if the government did not meet its demands. Mahatma Gandhi saw the Khilafat agitation as "an opportunity not to unite Hindus and Muslims in a hundred years time."Also, the Muslims League gave full support to the National Congress and its political agitation. In early 1920, Gandhi declared that the Khilafat question overshadowed the constitutional reforms and the Jallianwala massacre and announced that he would lead a non - cooperation movement if the terms of peace with Turkey did not satisfy the Indian Muslims.