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Explain South America continent

By Shyam Dubey on 24 Oct 22 | Filed under: Geography
South America is the fourth largest continent in the world by land area. And the third most populous in the world. Furthermore, it is in the southern hemisphere, with the exception of a small area of the northernmost part of the continent.Moreover, it is present completely in the western hemisphere.  ......

Explain North America continent

By Shyam Dubey on 24 Oct 22 | Filed under: Geography
North America has the largest land area in the world at number 3. It is the fourth largest continent in the world according to its population. It is also said sometimes a subcontinent of the Americas, North America is a home for the longest land border in the whole world.These land borders are commo  ......

Explain Europe continent

By Shyam Dubey on 24 Oct 22 | Filed under: Geography
Europe is the third continent with the highest population in the whole world. Furthermore, it is also the sixth-largest continent by its land area. Although, Europe is said to be a separate continent due to cultural and linguistic variations.Europe is a home for more than 10% of the total population

Explain Australia continent

By Shyam Dubey on 24 Oct 22 | Filed under: Geography
Australia is the smallest continent in the world. It is the second continent that has the least population.The word Oceania also comes in use for describing this region in order to make it different from the country of Australia. However, Oceania is not a continent, it is a continental grouping inst

Explain Asia Continent

By Shyam Dubey on 24 Oct 22 | Filed under: Geography
Asia is the largest Continent on the world map continents, by its population and land area at the same time. Moreover, it has 30% of the world’s land area. Near about 60% of the world’s population is living in Asia.Asia has the longest coastline from all the continents. Moreover, it has a very d

Explain Antarctica Continent

By Shyam Dubey on 24 Oct 22 | Filed under: Geography
It is at the South Pole, it does not have any countries or even doesn’t have any permanent population. Furthermore, it is only used for the scientific base.On the world map continents, Antarctica is the fifth-largest continent by its area of land. On the other hand, it is also a continent with the

Explain Africa Continent

By Shyam Dubey on 24 Oct 22 | Filed under: Geography
On the world map continents, Africa is the second-largest continent the land area along with the population. Furthermore, the equator runs through Africa and it runs in the mid-point of the continent. Moreover, near about one-third, part of Africa is present in the southern hemisphere.Africa holds u  ......

Important points about The Sun

By Dharmendra Sir on 10 Jul 22 | Filed under: Geography Universe
» The Sun is at the center of the Solar System.» Its size is thirteen lakh times as that of the Earth.» It is the nearest star to the Earth.» It is an ultimate source of energy for life on Earth.» Its diameter is 14 lakh kms.» It is composed of 71% Hydrogen, 26.5% Helium and 2.5% other element  ......

What are Planets and its types

By Dharmendra Sir on 10 Jul 22 | Filed under: Geography Universe
» These are opaque bodies which continuously revolve around and are lighted by the Sun.» There are eight planets in the Solar system.» A ninth planet has been recently discovered by NASA named as Carla.» The sequence of planets according to their distance from the Sun is Mercury, Venus, Earth, M  ......

Classification of Planets

By Dharmendra Sir on 10 Jul 22 | Filed under: Geography Universe
» The eight planets have been divided into two groups. All the planets of a particular group have some common features. 'Terrestrial planets' or 'Rocky planets' and 'Jovian planets' or 'Gaseous planets' (Gas giants) are the two groups of planets.» The four planets nearest to the Sun-Mercury, Venus  ......

What are Moraines?

By Kirti on 18 Jun 22 | Filed under: Geography
Moraines are long ridges of deposits of glacial till.
    
When these deposits are at the end of a glacier, they are called as Terminal moraines and when they are deposited on both sides, they are called as Lateral moraines.
    
When lateral moraines of two glaciers join together, they form Med  ......

What are Eskers?

By Kirti on 18 Jun 22 | Filed under: Geography
When glaciers melt in summer, the water which formed as a result of melting accumulates beneath the glacier and flows like streams in channels beneath that ice.
    
Very coarse material like boulders, blocks and some minor fractions of rock debris are carried away by these streams.
    
They la  ......

What are drumlins?

By Kirti on 18 Jun 22 | Filed under: Geography
They are smooth oval-shaped ridge-like structures composed mainly of glacial till.

It shapes like an inverted spoon with the highest part is called as Stoss End and the lowest narrow part is called as Tail End.

They are formed as a result of glacial movement over some minor obstruction like sm  ......

What is a Glacier?

By Kirti on 18 Jun 22 | Filed under: Geography
Glaciers are a mass of ice moving under its own weight. They are commonly found in the snow-fields.
    
We know that the landmass on the earth is not entirely the same as we see around. Some areas are covered by thick green forests, some with dry hot deserts, some with permanent ice covers etc. A  ......

Hidkal Dam

By Shivam on 07 Feb 22 | Filed under: Geography Hydrosphere
Raja Lakhamagouda dam, also known as Hidkal dam, is a dam constructed across the Ghataprabha River in the Krishna River basin. It is situated at Hidkal village in Hukkeri Taluk of Belagavi district in North Karnataka, India. The dam with the height of 62.48 metres and 10 Vertical Crest Gates, impoun  ......

Nagarjuna Sagar Dam

By Shivam on 07 Feb 22 | Filed under: Geography Hydrosphere
Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is considered one of largest dams built in the recent times in Asia. As the tallest masonry dam, Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is also the pride of India. The project has catchment area of roughly 215000 sq.km. The project also boasts of the largest canal system network in India .The might  ......

What is Anti-Matter?

By Kanak Sharma on 14 Nov 21 | Filed under: Geography Universe
It is hypothesized that every elementary particle in the Universe has a partner particle, known as an ‘antiparticle’.

The particle and its antiparticle share many similar characteristics, but many other properties are the exact opposite.

The electron, for example, has as its antiparticle t  ......

What is Dark Energy

By Kanak Sharma on 14 Nov 21 | Filed under: Geography Universe
Dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesised to permeate (spread throughout) all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.


What is Dark matter??

The velocity of rotation for spiral galaxies depends on the amount of mass contained in them.

But the out  ......

What is Deranged Drainage Pattern

By Tina Singh on 03 Nov 21 | Filed under: Geography Earth
This is an uncoordinated pattern of drainage characteristic of a region recently vacated by an ice-sheet.

The picture is one of the numerous watercourses, lakes and marshes; some inter-connected and some in local drainage basins of their own.

This type of drainage is found in the glaciated val

Detailed information on Physiography of India for upsc

By Shyam Dubey on 15 Oct 21 | Filed under: Geography
India has a unique culture and is one of the oldest and greatest civilizations in the world. It stretches from the snow-capped Himalayas in the north to Sun-drenched coastal villages of the south and the humid tropical forests on the south-west coast, from the fertile Brahmaputra valley in its east   ......

Definition of Isthmus, Gulf and Cape

By Shyam Dubey on 15 Oct 21 | Filed under: Geography
Isthmus

It is a narrow strip of land connecting two large land areas otherwise separated by the sea. Unquestionably the two most famous are the Isthmus of Panama, connecting North and South America, and the Isthmus of Suez, connecting Africa and Asia.

Gulf

It is a portion of the ocean that   ......

What is Strait

By Shyam Dubey on 15 Oct 21 | Filed under: Geography
It is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. It most commonly refers to a channel of water that lies between two landmasses, but it may also refer to a navigable channel through a body of water that is otherwise not navigable, for example, 

What is Peninsula

By Shyam Dubey on 15 Oct 21 | Filed under: Geography
A body of land surrounded by water on three sides is called a peninsula. The word comes from the Latin paene insula, meaning “almost an island. The world’s largest peninsula is Arabia, covering about 1 million square miles (2.6 million square kilometres). It is bounded on the west by the Red Sea  ......

Definition fo Island

By Shyam Dubey on 15 Oct 21 | Filed under: Geography
It is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, or a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically r  ......

Significance of weathering to human life

By Ravi Chauhan on 11 Oct 21 | Filed under: Geography UPSC
Weathering is the initial stage in the formation of soil.

It produces other natural resources, for instance, clay which is used for making bricks.

Another significance is weathering weakens rocks making them easier for people to exploit, for example, by mining and quarrying
This process is ac  ......

Cyclonic Rainfall – Major Characteristics

By Manisha Agrawal on 09 Oct 21 | Filed under: Geography
Cyclonic activity causes cyclonic rain and it occurs along the fronts of the cyclone.

When two masses of air of unlike density, temperature, and humidity meet then it is formed.

The layer that separates them is known as the front.

A warm front and the cold front are the two parts of the fro  ......

Convectional Rainfall – Major Characteristics

By Manisha Agrawal on 09 Oct 21 | Filed under: Geography
The air on getting heated becomes light and rises in convection currents.
As the air rises, it expands and drops the temperature and subsequently, condensation takes place and cumulus clouds are formed.
Heavy rainfall with lightning and thunder takes place which does not last long.
Such rain is u  ......

What are Metamorphic Rocks

By Brijesh Goswami on 09 Oct 21 | Filed under: Geography
These rocks form under the action of volume, pressure, and temperature (PVT) changes.

Metamorphism happens when rocks are forced down to lower levels by tectonic processes or when molten magma rising through the crust comes in contact with the crustal rocks or the underlying rocks are exposed to   ......

What are Sedimentary Rocks

By Brijesh Goswami on 09 Oct 21 | Filed under: Geography
Rocks of the earth’s surface area exposed to denudation agents and are broken up into various sizes of fragments.

These fragments are carried by various exogenous agencies and deposited.

These deposits through compaction turn into rocks. This process is called lithification.

In several se  ......

What are western ghats | Indian Heritage

By Shyam Dubey on 06 Oct 21 | Filed under: Geography Indian Geography
The Western Ghats, also known as the Sahyadri Hills, are well known for their rich and unique assemblage of flora and fauna. Norman Myers included the Western Ghats amongst the 25 biodiversity hot-spots identified in the world.

The Western Ghats extend from the Satpura Range in the north, go sout  ......

Drainage Patterns: Concordant, Discordant for UPSC

By Gopal Sharma on 19 Sep 21 | Filed under: Geography Hydrosphere
Drainage Systems (Drainage Patterns)

Drainage systems, also known as river systems, are the patterns formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage basin.

They are governed by tectonic irregularity, nature of underlying rock strata, and the gradient of the land.

Based on   ......

What are Normal Waves

By Rakesh Yadav on 17 Sep 21 | Filed under: Geography Hydrosphere
Normal waves
The horizontal and vertical motions are common in ocean water bodies.

The horizontal motion refers to the ocean currents and waves. The vertical motion refers to tides.

Water moves ahead from one place to another through ocean currents while the water in the normal wind-generated  ......

Water Erosion and its type

By Vishal Gupta on 23 Aug 21 | Filed under: Geography Hydrosphere
Water Erosion

# Running water is one of the main agents, which carries away soil particles.

# Soil erosion by water occurs by means of raindrops, waves or ice.

# Erosion by water is termed differently according to the intensity and nature of erosion: raindrop erosion, sheet erosion, rill an  ......

Marine Cycle of Erosion

By Tina Singh on 31 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Hydrosphere
Marine Cycle of Erosion
1. Youth

# The waves are very active.

# Sea caves, arches and stalks begin to develop.

# Cliff undercutting is pronounced and wavecut platform begins to emerge due to wave erosion.

# By the end of youth, an irregular coastline remains.

2. Maturity

# The cli  ......

Types of Marine Depositional Landforms

By Ranjeet on 29 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Hydrosphere
Marine Depositional Landforms

1. Beach

# This is the temporary covering of rock debris on or along a wave-cut platform.

2. Bar

# Currents and tidal currents deposit rock debris and sand along the coast at a distance from the shoreline.

# The resultant landforms which remain submerged   ......

Types of Marine Erosional Landforms

By Ranjeet on 29 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Hydrosphere
Marine Erosional Landforms

1. Chasms
# These are narrow, deep indentations (a deep recess or notch on the edge or surface of something) carved due to headward erosion (downcutting) through vertical planes of weakness in the rocks by wave action.

# With time, further headward erosion is hinder  ......

What is Igneous Rocks | Indian Geography

By Sandeep on 28 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Indian Geography
# It is formed out of magma and lava from the interior of the earth.

# They are also known as primary rocks.
When magma in its upward movement cools and turns into a solid form it is called igneous rock.

# The process of cooling and solidification can happen in the crust of the earth or on th  ......

The Indian Ocean

By Durgesh on 28 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Hydrosphere
# Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world’s oceanic divisions.
# Smaller and less deep than the Atlantic Ocean.

Submarine ridges

# Submarine ridges in this ocean include the Lakshadweep-Chagos Ridge [Reunion Hotspot], the Socotra-Chagos Ridge, the Seychelles Ridge, the South Madagasc  ......

The Atlantic Ocean

By Vikash Gupta on 27 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Hydrosphere
# The Atlantic is the second largest ocean after the Pacific.

# It is roughly half the size of the Pacific Ocean.

# It’s shape resembles the letter ‘S’.

# In terms of trade, it is the most significant of all oceans.

# It has prominent continental shelf with varying widths.

# The  ......

The Pacific Ocean

By Vikash Gupta on 27 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Hydrosphere
# Largest and deepest ocean.
# Covers about one-third of the earth’s surface.
# Average depth is generally around 7,300 metres.
# Its shape is roughly triangular with its apex in the north at the Bering Strait.
# Many marginal seas, bays and gulfs occur along its boundaries.
# Nearly 20,000 i  ......

Meteoroid, Meteor and Meteorite

By Chandani on 24 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Universe
 A meteoroid is any solid debris originating from asteroids, comets or other celestial object and floats through interplanetary space.

 A meteor is the streak of light that appears in the sky when a meteoroid enters the atmosphere (mesosphere) at about 200 km at high speed and burns up because of  ......

What are Comets

By Madhu on 22 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Universe
# A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, heats up due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind upon the nucleus and begins to outgas, displaying a visible atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail.

# Comets have highly elliptical orbits, unl  ......

What is Asteroid belt

By Madhu on 22 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Universe
# Asteroids are remnants of planetary formation that circle the Sun in a zone lying between Mars and Jupiter. The circular chain of asteroids is called the asteroid belt.

# The remnants of planetary formation failed to coalesce because of the gravitational interference of Jupiter.

# The astero  ......

Saturn, Uranus and Neptune planet

By Rohan Raj on 21 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Universe
Saturn
# Saturn’s rings are probably made up of billions of particles of ice and ice-covered rocks.

# Titan is the second-largest moon in the Solar System (larger than Mercury) and it is the only satellite in the Solar System with a substantial atmosphere (nitrogen-rich).

Uranus

# In con  ......

Jupiter Planet

By Rohan Raj on 21 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Universe
It is called Outer planet.
# It is composed mostly of gas and liquid swirling in complex patterns with no solid surface.

# Jupiter’s four large moons (Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto), called the Galilean satellites because Galileo discovered them.

# Ganymede is the largest natural satel  ......

What are Outer Planets

By Rohan Raj on 21 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Universe
# Outer Planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and the dwarf planet – Pluto.

# The four outer planets, called the gas giants, collectively make up 99% of the mass known to orbit the Sun.

# They are composed mainly of hydrogen & helium & lack a solid surface. Their moons are, however, s  ......

Types of Ocean Currents

By Mohini Yadav on 20 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Currents
 Warm Ocean Currents:

# Those currents which flow from equatorial regions towards poles which have a higher surface temperature and are called warm current.
# They bring warm waters to the cold regions.
# They are usually observed on the east coast of the continents in the lower and middle lati  ......

What are waves and tides

By Mohini Yadav on 20 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Currents
Waves

# Waves are nothing but the oscillatory movements that result in the rise and fall of water surface.
# Waves are a kind of horizontal movements of the ocean water.
# They are actually the energy, not the water as such, which moves across the ocean surface.
# This energy for the waves is   ......

Mars Planet

By Shyam Dubey on 20 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Universe
# Mars is often referred to as the “Red Planet” because of the reddish iron oxide prevalent on its surface.

# Mars has a thin atmosphere and has surface features ranging from impact craters of the Moon and the valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth.

# Mars is the site of Olympus Mon  ......

About Moon - Earth' Satellite How moon was formed

By Ranjeet on 18 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Universe
# Its diameter is only one-quarter that of the earth.

# It is about 3,84,400 km away from us.
A ray of light from the sun takes about eight minutes to reach the earth. Light takes only a second to reach us from the moon.

# The moon is tidally locked to the earth, meaning that the moon revolve  ......

Short note on Venus Planet

By Rakesh Yadav on 18 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Universe
# Venus is the brightest planet in the solar system and is the third brightest object visible from earth after the sun and the moon.

# It is the brightest among planets because it has the highest albedo due to the highly reflective sulfuric acid that covers its atmosphere. It is sometimes visible  ......

Mercury Planet

By Sikhar Chaudhary on 18 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Universe
# Mercury’s surface appears heavily cratered and is similar in appearance to the Moon’s, indicating that it has been geologically inactive for billions of years (because there is no atmosphere on Mercury).

# When viewed from Earth, the planet can only be seen near the western or eastern horiz  ......

What are Inner Planets

By Sikhar Chaudhary on 18 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Universe
Inner Planets
# The inner Solar System is the traditional name for the region comprising the terrestrial planets and asteroids.

# They are composed mainly of silicates and metals.

# The four inner or terrestrial planets have dense, rocky compositions, few or no moons, and no ring systems.

  ......

What are Planet and its type

By Sikhar Chaudhary on 18 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Universe
Planet: 

# A celestial body moving in an elliptical orbit around a star is known as a planet.

# The planets of our solar system are divisible in two groups:

# the planets of the inner circle (as they lie between the sun and the belt of asteroids) or the inner planets or the ‘terrestrial p  ......

What is Hydrosphere

By Brijesh Goswami on 12 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Atmosphere
# The hydrosphere includes water on earth in Oceans, Seas, Rivers, Lakes and even in frozen forms.

# Only 2.5% of Earths water is freshwater. And even in this 2.5%; approximately 69% is in the form of snow and ice.

# 97.5% of Earths water is saltwater, which is unfit for human consumption.

  ......

7 Continents in the world

By Brijesh Goswami on 12 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography
Continents

 There are seven major continents and these are separated by large water bodies.

1. Asia

# The largest continent on Earth is Asia.

# Asia is also the most populous continent on earth i.e. it is home to approximately 60% of the world’s population as of 2019.

# Asian contin  ......

The Sun it's atmosphere and internal structure

By Praveen Singh on 10 Jul 21 | Filed under: Geography Atmosphere
The Sun

# Age: 4.6 billion years.
# Diameter: 1.39 million km.
# Temperature: 6000 °C on surface and 16 million °C in core.
# Density: 1.41 times that of water.
# Density of water = 999.97 kg/m³ = ~ 1 g/cm3;
# Density of Iron = 7870 kg/m³.

# That implies Iron is = 7.87 times denser th  ......

Top FAQs on National Parks Indian Geography

By Kirti on 29 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Indian Geography
# Q . What is a National Park?
Ans. Any natural habitat which is set aside by the Government of a state or Union Territory for the conservation of the natural environment is called a National Park.

# Q . Which is the largest National Park in India?
Ans. Hemis National Park in Ladakh is the larg  ......

Major Ravi Crops | Indian Geography

By Radhika Singh on 28 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Farming
Major Rabi Crops
These crops are mostly shown during the Ravi season. 

Cereals
Fruits
Vegetables
Barley
Banana
Cabbage
Gram
Lady Fingers
Capsicum
Rapeseed
Tomato
Onion
Mustard
Grapefruit	
Potato
Oat
Mangoes 
Spinach
Bajra
Lemons
Tomato

The Peninsular Rivers Indian Geography

By Rakesh Yadav on 25 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Rivers
The peninsular rivers are the rivers that originate from the peninsular plateaus and small hills of India. These rivers are seasonal or non-perennial as they receive water only form the rains and thus cannot maintain water flow throughout the year. Some of the famous peninsular rivers include Kaveri  ......

The Himalayan Rivers Indian Geography

By Rakesh Yadav on 25 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Rivers
The Himalayan Rivers are the rivers that originate from the Himalayan mountain ranges. These rivers are snow fed; they receive water from the melting ice of the glaciers as well as from the rains. The three main Himalayan Rivers are the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra. These three rivers flow t  ......

Rocks and Minerals for UPSC

By Shyam Dubey on 24 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Earth
# The earth’s crust is made up of various types of rocks.

# Rock- Any natural mass of mineral matter that makes up the earth’s crust.

# There are three major types of rocks-
Igneous rocks-when the molten magma cools; it solidifies to become igneous rock.

# Sedimentary rocks- igneous ro  ......

Interior of Earth Geography

By Shyam Dubey on 24 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Earth
# The earth is made up of several concentric layers with one inside another.
# Crust – The uppermost layer over the earth’s surface.
# It is the thinnest of all the layers.
It is about 35 km. on the continental masses and only 5 km. on the ocean floors.
# The main mineral constituents of the  ......

Which gases are found in our Atmosphere

By Madhu on 22 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Atmosphere
# Nitrogen-is the most plentiful gas in the air.
Plants need nitrogen for their survival.
# Oxygen- is the second most abundant gas in the air.
# Humans and animals take oxygen from the air as they inhale.
# Carbon dioxide- is another most important gas.
# Green plants use carbon dioxide to mak

Structure of our Atmosphere

By Madhu on 22 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Atmosphere
Our atmosphere is divided into five layers starting from the earth’s surface.

# Troposphere - the most important layer of the atmosphere. Its average height is 13 km. The air we inhale exists here. Most weather phenomena like rainfall, hailstorm, etc. occur in this layer.
# Stratosphere- just   ......

Interesting facts about the Passes in India

By Madhu on 22 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Indian Geography
# The Dungri la pass or Mana Pass is the high altitude mountain pass and the highest motorable road with an elevation of 18,399 ft.
# Jawahar tunnel was constructed under the Banihal pass.
# Shipki La is a Himalayan pass that connects India and China.
# Zoji La pass connects the Ladakh and Kashmi

Mountain Passes in Southern India

By Brijesh Goswami on 21 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Indian Geography
# Shencottah Gap:
 Madurai-Kottayam	It is located in the Western Ghats. It joins the Madurai city in Tamil Nadu with the Kottayam district in Kerala.
The second-largest gap in the Western Ghats which is situated five kilometers from town is known by its name that is Shencottah Gap road-rail lines   ......

Mountain Passes in Kashmir

By Brijesh Goswami on 21 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Indian Geography
# Banihal Pass (Jawahar Tunnel): Banihal with Qazigund
Banihal pass is a popular pass in Jammu and Kashmir. It is situated in the Pir- Panjal Range. It connects Banihal with Qazigund.

# Zoji La: Srinagar- 
Kargil & Leh	It connects Srinagar with Kargil and Leh. Beacon Force of Border Road Organi  ......

Mountain Passes in the Northeastern States

By Brijesh Goswami on 21 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Indian Geography
# Bomdi-La: Arunachal Pradesh-Lhasa
The Bomdi-La pass connects Arunachal Pradesh with Lhasa, the capital city of Tibet. It is located in the east of Bhutan.

# Dihang pass: Arunachal Pradesh- Mandalay	
It is located in the Northeastern states of Arunachal Pradesh. This pass connects Arunachal Pr  ......

Mountain Passes in Uttarakhand for UPSC

By Shyam Dubey on 20 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Indian Geography
Traill’s Pass- 
It is located in Uttarakhand. It is situated at the end of the Pindari glacier and connects the Pindari valley to Milam valley. This pass is very steep and rugged.

Lipu Lekh: 
Uttarakhand-Tibet	It is located in Uttarakhand. It connects Uttarakhand with Tibet. This pass is an i  ......

Mountain Passes in Leh and Ladakh for UPSC

By Shyam Dubey on 20 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Indian Geography
Khardung La:
It is the highest motorable pass in the country. It connects Leh and Siachen glaciers. This pass remains closed during the winter.

Thang La / Taglang La:
It is located in Ladakh. It is the second-highest motorable mountain pass in India.

Aghil Pass: 
It is situated to the North  ......

Mountain passes in India

By Shyam Dubey on 20 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Indian Geography
Mountain pass is a connectivity route through the mountain run. It is a gateway to connect different parts of the country and also with neighbouring countries for different purposes. 
Some of the Important Mountain Passes India are:

Zoji La
Bara- Lacha Pass
Mana Pass
Shipki La
Jelep La

Na  ......

Important Facts about Lakes for UPSC Prelims

By Shyam Dubey on 20 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Lakes
 Wular lake - is one of the biggest freshwater lakes in Asia and it was formed as a result of tectonic activity.
 Chilika Lake - in Odisha is the largest saline water lake in India.
Vembanad Lake - in Kerala is the longest lake in India.
Cholamu Lake - in Sikkim is the highest lake in India.
Lon  ......

List of Important Lakes in India

By Vishal Gupta on 19 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Lakes
The list of important lakes in India is given below:

Pulicat lake:	Andhra Pradesh
Kolleru Lake:	Andhra Pradesh
Haflong Lake:	Assam
Deepor Beel:	Assam
Chandubi Lake:	Assam
Kanwar lake:	Bihar
Hamirsar Lake:	Gujarat
Kankaria Lake:	Gujarat
Badkhal Lake:	Haryana
Brahma Sarovar:	Haryana
Chand  ......

Top 10 largest Lakes in India

By Vishal Gupta on 19 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Lakes
These lakes are in descending order: 
Vembanad Lake	:       Kerala
Chilika Lake:	Odisha
Shivaji Sagar Lake:	Maharashtra
Indira Sagar lake:	Madhya Pradesh
Pangong Lake:	Ladakh
Pulicat Lake:	Andhra Pradesh
Sardar Sarovar Lake:	Gujarat
Nagarjuna Sagar Lake:	Telangana
Loktak Lake:	Manipur
Wula

Types of Clouds Geography

By Ruchi Sharma on 15 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Atmosphere
Most clouds can be divided into groups (high/middle/low) based on the height of the cloud's base above the Earth's surface. Other clouds are grouped not by their height, but by their unique characteristics, such as forming alongside mountains (Lenticular clouds) or forming beneath existing clouds (M  ......

Factors responsible for the origin of Ocean Currents

By Harikesh on 08 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Currents
Ocean currents are continuous movements of water in the ocean that follow set paths, kind of rivers in the ocean. There are two distinct current systems in the ocean—surface circulation, which stirs a relatively thin upper layer of the sea, and deep circulation, which sweeps along the deep-sea flo  ......

Mechanism of the onset of the Indian Monsoon

By Harikesh on 08 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Monsoon
Indian Monsoon can be best described as the seasonal reversal of winds. In the Indian monsoon winds flow from sea to land during the summer and from land to sea during winter.

The mechanism of the Indian monsoon can be understood in two phases namely, the onset of the South-West Monsoon and retre  ......

Internal Structure of the Earth

By Harikesh on 08 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Earth
On the basis of seismic investigations, the earth can be divided into three major layers: crust, mantle, core.
Differentiation of layers of Earth

Crust: The outer superficial layer of the earth is called the "crust". In continental regions, the crust can be divided into two layers.
The upper la  ......

What is Clouds

By Krishna Sharma on 08 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Clouds
1. A cloud is an accumulation or grouping of tiny water droplets and ice crystals that are suspended in the earth atmosphere.

2. They are masses that consist of huge density and volume and hence it is visible to naked eyes.

3. There are different types of Clouds. They differ from each other in  ......

Volcanic Landforms

By Mohini Yadav on 07 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Volcano
1. The lava that is released during volcanic eruptions on cooling develops into igneous rocks.

2. The cooling may take place either on reaching the surface or from the inside itself.

3. Depending on the location of the cooling of lava, igneous rocks are classified as:

Mid-Ocean Ridge Volcanoes

By Mohini Yadav on 07 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Volcano
1. These volcanoes occur in the oceanic areas.

2. There is a system of mid-ocean ridges more than 70,000 km long that stretches through all the ocean basins.

3. The central portion of this ridge experiences frequent eruptions.

Flood Basalt Provinces Volcano

By Mohini Yadav on 07 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Volcano
1. These volcanoes outpour highly fluid lava that flows for long distances.

2. The Deccan Traps from India, presently covering most of the Maharashtra plateau, are a much larger flood basalt province.

Caldera Volcano

By Mohini Yadav on 07 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Volcano
1. These are the most explosive of the earth’s volcanoes.

2. They are usually so explosive that when they erupt they tend to collapse on themselves rather than building any tall structure. The collapsed depressions are called calderas.

3. Their explosiveness indicates that its magma chamber   ......

Composite Volcanoes

By Mohini Yadav on 07 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Volcano
1. Shape: Cone shaped with moderately steep sides and sometimes have small craters in their summits.

2. Volcanologists call these “strato-” or composite volcanoes because they consist of layers of solid lava flows mixed with layers of sand- or gravel-like volcanic rock called cinders or volca  ......

Cinder Cone Volcanoes

By Mohini Yadav on 07 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Volcano
1. Cinders are extrusive igneous rocks. A more modern name for cinder is Scoria.
2. Small volcanoes.
3. These volcanoes consist almost entirely of loose, grainy cinders and almost no lava.
4. They have very steep sides and usually have a small crater on top.

Shield Volcanoes

By Mohini Yadav on 07 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography Volcano
1. How to identify: They are not very steep but are far and wider. They extend to great height as well as distance.
2. They are the largest of all volcanoes in the world as the lava flows to a far distance. The Hawaiian volcanoes are the most famous examples.
3. Shield volcanoes have low slopes an  ......

Islands Groups of India

By Shyam Dubey on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
There are two major island groups in India. One in the Bay of Bengal and the other in the Arabian Sea. The Bay of Bengal groups of islands consists of 572 islands approximately. These are situated between 6°N to 14°N and 92°E to 94°E. Richie’s archipelago and Labyrinth are the two principal gr  ......

What is Karewas in detail

By Shyam Dubey on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
Kare was are the thick deposits of glacial clay and other materials embedded with moraine. The Kashmir Himalayas are famous for Karewas formations which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran, which is a local variety of saffron. Kashmir or the north-western Himalayas comprise a series of ranges s  ......

how the Himalayas were formed

By Shyam Dubey on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
The Himalayas have been formed due to folding by different mountain building movements. The major areas of the Himalayas have been formed by folding while minor has been formed as a result of weathering and other agents of changes. It had been uplifted from the Great Geosyncline known as Tethys sea   ......

Saline Lakes of Rajasthan

By Ravi Chauhan on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
Rajasthan lies in the desert area to the west of the Aravali hills. This region has very low rainfall. The groundwater in this region is impregnated with salt, therefore various saline lakes are found. Out of these, there are two well-known saline lakes on the eastern edge of the Thar Desert. They a  ......

Explain Island Groups in India

By Ravi Chauhan on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal have a number of islands. They are called Lakshadweep, Andaman, and Nicobar islands. Andaman and Nicobar islands are the elevated portions of submarine mountains while the Lakshadweep Islands are built of coral deposits.

Explain Coastal Plains in India

By Ravi Chauhan on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal have a number of islands. They are called Lakshadweep, Andaman, and Nicobar islands. Andaman and Nicobar islands are the elevated portions of submarine mountains while the Lakshadweep Islands are built of coral deposits.

Explain The Greatest Indian Desert

By Ravi Chauhan on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
It lies to the west of the Aravali ranges in Rajasthan. This is the region of moving sand and low rainfall, known as Marusthali. It was drained by the Saraswati, Drisadvati, and Satluj rivers. But today Llini is the only river. There are numerous salt lakes of which Sambhar is the largest.

Explain The Great Peninsular Plateau

By Ravi Chauhan on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
The peninsular plateau forms the largest physiographic division facing towards the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. It stretches from the Satpura range (north) to Kanyakumari (south) and from the Sahyadri (Western Ghats) to Rajmahal hills in the east. It is triangular in shape having four physiogr

Explain The Great Northern Plain

By Ravi Chauhan on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
The great plains are composed of sediments deposited by rivers. They are quite extensive. The central and eastern parts of the plains have been formed by the tributaries of the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers. Half of the Great plain lies in Uttar Pradesh and half in the state of Bihar.

Explain The Great Mountains

By Ravi Chauhan on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
These are formed by the continuous stretch of the mountain from Kashmir to Assam. It acts as a wall. They arc the Karakoram and the Himalayas. The Karakoram mountains lie between the Pamir plateau and the Indus River in the west. Baltoro is the famous glacier of the Karakoram range. They are very hi  ......

What is horst Explain

By Ravi Chauhan on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
A horst is the uplift land between two parallel faults. The central mass of the land keeps standing while the adjoining areas are thrown down. It forms the shape of a block mountain or a horst. For example Vindhyan and Vosges.

characteristics of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

By Ravi Chauhan on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
The main characteristics are :

1. The Great Andaman is a collection of three islands, north, middle, and south.
2. These are a group of islands.
3. The south coast is very indented and has the highest hill ranges,
4. There are 19 islands in Nicobar islands.

Three characteristics of the Himalayas to indicate youthful stage

By Ravi Chauhan on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
There are many pieces of evidence collected by various geologists and archeologists to prove the youthfulness of the Himalayas. The follow ing evidence is given here :

1. The presence of Karewas.
In the sub-Himalayan region, fossils of post-2. tertiary mammals have been found which points to the  ......

What is Karewas

By Ravi Chauhan on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
In the valley of Kashmir, the lake deposits comprise thick deposits of glacial clay and other materials embedded with maintaining, These deposits occur in the valleys within the Himalayan mountain where there was once glacial action and deposition of Morain.

Explain Doab with examples

By Ravi Chauhan on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
The plain formed between two rivers is known as Doab. It separates two rivers but maintains its uniform character over the whole area. In Punjab, Doabs maintain the physical characteristics of the Punjab plain.

Best Jalandhar Doab
Bari Doab
Chaz Doab
Sind Sagar Doab

What is Bhangar

By Ravi Chauhan on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
The south of Terai is a belt consisting of old and new alluvial deposits known as Bhangar. These areas stand above the level of floodwater and the flood plains. This land is made up of clay pebbles and gravel. In Gangetic plains, these alluvial lands have been formed by the deposition of sandbars by

Difference between northern mountain and peninsula

By Ravi Chauhan on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
The northern mountains are young, weak, and flexible and have suffered from folding and deformation. The peninsula contains mostly residual mountains. Here, the river valley is shallow having low gradients. On the other hand, the Himalayas mountains are tectonic and rivers are torrential. The format  ......

What are tills

By Geetam on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
Glacial deposits consists of clay, silt, sand and rocks of various sizes. Such materials deposited directly by the glacier are known as tills. till is deposited as glacial ice melts and drops its load of rock mountains.

What is piedmont glaciers

By Geetam on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
Piedmont glaciers occupy broad low lands at the base of steep mountains and form where one or more valley glaciers emerge from the confining walls of mountain valleys.

Short note on Antarctic ice sheet

By Geetam on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
Write a note on Antarctic ice sheet?

In the south polar region, the huge Antarctic ice sheet contains a maximum thickness of nearly 4300 meters.

It covers at area more than 13.9 million square kilometers about 12 times the area of India.

This huge volume off ice contains more than 90 percen

Differentiate between continental glaciers from valley glaciers

By Geetam on 06 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
Continental Glaciers: They are broad and extremely thick. They cover vast areas of land near the earth’s polar regions. Glaciers of this type build up at the center and slope outward to flow toward the sea in all directions.

Valley glaciers: They are long, narrow bodies of ice that fill high mo  ......

Great knowledge about our solar system

By Uday Singh on 04 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
    The Sun is 93 million miles from the Earth. The light from the Sun only takes 8 minutes to travel to the Earth, but it would take Usain Bolt – the fastest man on Earth – 450 years to run from the Sun to the Earth.
    The Earth travels around the Sun in a loop that is shaped a bit like an o  ......

What is proxima centuary?

By Uday Singh on 04 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
The nearest star to the Earth after the Sun is Proxima Centuri. It is red dwarf that is smaller and colder than our Sun and gives off a lot less light. Even though it is the closest star outside the Solar System, the light from it is too faint to see except with a telescope. Proxima Centuri is 24 tr

Definitions of heavenly bodies

By Uday Singh on 04 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
Asteroid – Asteroids are bodies of rock and ice in space. Millions of asteroids orbit the Sun -most between Mars and Jupiter. They vary in size between 1 metre across and 600 miles across.
Atmosphere – the layer of gas around a planet
Comet – a comet is a body of ice, dust and bits of rock t  ......

Brief knowledge about our Planets

By Uday Singh on 04 Jun 21 | Filed under: Geography
Mercury – this is the closest planet to the Sun. It is the smallest planet and is made of rock. It is so close to the Sun that it only takes 88 days for it to complete its orbit and is much hotter than Earth.

Venus – Venus is the next planet from the Sun after Mercury. It is also made of rock  ......