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Indo Greek Invasion

Filed under: Ancient History
The arrival of the Yavanas in India marked by their invasion on the western border of India.

Indo greek
After Alexander’s death, a large part of his empire came under the rule of his Generals.

Bactria and Parthia, the adjoining areas of Iran were two main areas under the rule of Alexander  ......

History of Rashtrakutas

Rashtrakutas built an empire which in the days of greatness extended from Malwa (central India) and Gujrath to Tanjore in south, effectively covering whole of south India. Rashtrakutas, who inherited Chalukyan empire, extended it further by penetrating in deep north and occupying Gangatic doab regio  ......

Partition of Bengal 1905

The partition of Bengal in 1905 was one measure which created deep discontentment among the Indians, The province of Bengal, Bihar and Odisha was divided into two parts. The original province included western Bengal, Bihar and Odisha and the new province included Assam and eastern Bengal. Curzon ple  ......

Chera Dynasty

The Cheras were also known as ‘Keralaputras’ in the history. The Chera kingdom occupied the region of a narrow strip between the sea and the mountains of Konkan range.

Chera Kingdom
The Chera rulers also occupied high position in the history of south India. Nedunjeral Adan was a famous Chera  ......

History of Pandya Dynasty

The Pandya kingdom was the second important kingdom in south India during this period. It occupied the region of modern districts of Tirunelveli, Ramnad, and Madurai in Tamil Nadu.

The capital of Pandya kingdom was Madurai. The Pandyan kingdom was very wealthy and prosperous.

The Sangam litera  ......

History of Cholas Dynasty

# The Cholas have occupied the region of Kaveri delta and the adjoining area. The region of Kanchi was also part of the Cholas kingdom.

# Cholas kingdom
The Kingdom was situated towards the north-east of Pandya kingdom and it was also called as Cholamandalam in early medieval times.

# In the   ......

Pala Dynasty

Pala Dynasty was the ruling Dynasty in Bihar and Bengal India, from the 8th to the 12th century.  Called the Palas because all their names ended in Pala, "protector".  The Palas rescued Bengal from the chaos into which it had fallen after the death of Shashanka, a rival of Harsha of Kanauj.  The fou  ......

History of Pallavas

Pallavas,the pastoral tribe emerged as a powerful ruler and commanded the region ofThondaimandalam.from its capital located at Pallavapuri (Bhavatri, of Nellore in theAndhra). They were of sect "Thiraiyar" and the region they ruled was called"Thondaimandalam". With the capital washed away by the sea  ......

History of Kushana Empire

In the early 2nd century BC, a tribe on the Central Asian frontier of China called Hsiung-nu defeated a neighboring one known as Yueh-chih. After more conflict, the survivors of the Yueh-chih were dislocated west, passing down the Ili river valley and along the southern shore of lake Issyk Kul. This  ......

Women in Buddhism and Jainism for UPSC IAS

Women in Buddhism and Jainism

The 6th century BCE in the Indian subcontinent was a dynamic period. It witnessed several changes that had long-lasting consequences. Firstly, the period witnessed the rise of territorial kingdoms known as Mahajanapadas. Secondly, the Indian subcontinent witnessed th  ......

Chola Dynasty in Indian History

The Cholas are the earliest and the most ancient among the South Indian royal houses. The artifacts of the period found in South India mention Mahabharata as well as Ashokan edicts.

The CholaKingdom is very ancient, there has been references made in Mahabharatha and even in Ashokan inscriptions.   ......

The Pandyan Dynasty Indian History

The Pandyas were one of the three small Dhravidian races that occupied the southern extremity of India. Around 700 BC, Dhravidians must have penetrated into S.India and organized themselves into distinguishable communities. Titles such as Solan, Pandiyan, and Keralas proves the existence of such a c  ......

Kanva Dynasty Indian History

Kanva dynasty had a Brahmanic origin. The dynasty was named after the gotra of the ruler Kanva. The Kanva dynasty was founded by Vasudeva Kanva. It is believed that Vasudeva Kanva killed the Shunga ruler Devabhuti and established his own empire in 72 BCE.

Kanva dynasty had a ruling phase from 72   ......

Vijay Nagar Empire - Indian History

Foundation of Vijaynagar empire is certainly the most significant event in the history of medieval India. It lasted for 3 centuries and successfully prevented the extension of Muslim sultanetes in south. History of Vijaynagar empire is truly an unbroken era of bloody wars with Bahamani and other Mus  ......

Maratha Empire Indian History

The Marathas' rise to power was a dramatic turning point that accelerated the demise of Muslim dominance in India. Maratha chieftains were originally in the service of Bijapur sultans in the western Deccan, which was under siege by the Mughals. Shivaji Bhonsle (1627 - 1680 AD) is recognized as the "  ......

Rulers of Chalukya Dynasty

# Jayasimha was the first ruler of the Chalukyas.

1. Pulakesin I (Reign: 543 AD – 566 AD)

#  Founded the empire with his capital at Vatapi.
# Performed Ashwamedha.

2.  Kirtivarman I (Reign: 566 AD – 597 AD)

# Son of Pulakesin I.
# Conquered Konkan and northern Kerala.

3. Mangale  ......

What are Smritis | Ancient History

# The Smritis have continued to play a very important role in Hindu life as it were playing since the last two thousand years.

# The Smritis explained the religious duties, usage, laws, and social customs.

# The Smritis are the expanded version of the Dharmasutras, which covered the period fro  ......

Sangam Literature

# Tamil language is the oldest one among the south Indian languages. The earliest phase of Tamil literature is associated with the three Sangams.

# Sangams were the societies of learned men established by the Pandya kingdom. Each Sangam comprises of a number of distinguished poets and learned sch  ......

Small Dynasty in Indian History

Apart from some important dynasties ruling in the post-Mauryan period in north India, there were a number of republics ruling smaller states. The information about these small dynasties is extracted from their coins on which their names were written.

Following are some of the important small dyna  ......

Early History of South India

# During the 1,000 B.C., the present states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala (in southern India) were inhabited by megalithic people.

# The important phase of the ancient history of south India is from the Megalithic period to about A.D. 300.

Megalithic Phase:

The literary meaning of the term megal  ......

Sunga Dynasty in short

The last Mauryan king Brithadratha was killed by his commander-in-chief Pushyamitra Sunga in 185 BC. He did so on being disgusted with his ruler's policy of the so-called non-violence that stood in the way of his leading a campaign against the alien invaders who had occupied a big chunk of North-Wes  ......

Nanda Dynasty in Brief

The first Magadha dynasty was overthrown by the usurper Mahapadna, founder of the Nanda dynasty, son of a low-caste woman. He established his capital in Pataliputra (eastern Bihar) at the time that Alexander was campaigning in the Indus river valley (327-324). The Nandas ruled Magadha between 364 B.  ......

Shishunaga Dynasty

Pradyota assents the throne of Avanti ending the Brhadratha Dynasty and commencing the Pradyota Dynasty of Magadha.

The Mahavamsa states that Ajatasattu's son Udayabhadra succeeded Ajatasattu and ruled for the next sixteen years. He moved his capital to the bank of Ganges which was known as Patal  ......

Haryanka Dynasty History

Pradyota became king of Avanti ending the Brhadratha Dynasty and commencing the Haryanka Dynasty of Magadha. The Haryanka king Bimbsara was responsible for expanding the boundries of his kingdom through matrimonial alliances and conquest. Bimbsara was the contemporary to Buddha. Bimbsara was impriso  ......

Kalinga Kingdom

Kalinga is mentioned in the ancient scriptures as Kalinga the Braves (Kalinga Sahasikha). During the 3rd century B.C. the Greek ambassador Megasthenes in his tour of India had mentioned about the military strength of the Kalinga army of about one lakh which consisted of 60 thousand soldiers, 1700 ho  ......

Kosala Kingdom

Kosala was an ancient Indian kingdom, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Oudh. in what is now south-central Uttar Pradesh state, it extended into present-day Nepal. Its capital was Ayodhya. In the 6th century BC it rose to become one of the dominant states in northern India. Kosala for  ......

Ghandahra Kingdom

Ghandahra is the name of an ancient Mahajanapada in northern Pakistan and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir and eastern Afghanistan. Gandhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau and on the northern side of the Kabul River. Its main cities were Peshawar and Taxila.

T  ......

Kuru Kingdom

Kuru was the name of an Indo-Aryan tribe and their kingdom in the Vedic civilization of India. Their kingdom was located in the area of modern Haryana. They formed the first political center of the Indo-Aryans after the Rigvedic period, and after their emergence from the Punjab, and it was there tha  ......

Mahajanpadas in details

There were many states of the Aryans in North India, around the 6th century B. C. These states were called the 'Mahajanapadas'. The Mahajanapadas of Anga, Kashi, Kosala, Chedi, Vatsa, Matsya, Shursen, Ashmak, Avanti, Gandhar and Magadha were ruled by kings or monarchs. The kings in these states had   ......

Verdhaman Mahavir History

Birth name of Mahavir was Vardhman. The different names Ativir , Sanmati , Mahavir were the titles conferred upon him for his acts of boldness and bravery at different occasions. He was born in a princely family with all the comforts of life were available to him but child Mahavir did not evince int  ......

Gautam Buddha History

Siddhartha Gautama was a prince who lived in the kingdom of Sakyas, near the present day border of India and Nepal, more than 2500 years ago. The young prince was raised in great luxury, but he was not happy. He wanted to understand what caused human suffering. He did not understand why some people   ......

Who were Aryans in History

# About 1500 B.C., groups of warlike people left their homes in central Asia, possibly near the Caucasus Mountains, and came to India. These people called themselves arya (kinsmen or nobles). They are now known as the Aryans. The Aryans are said to have entered India through the fabled Khyber pass,   ......

Dravidian history

Dravidian is the name given to a linguistically related group of people in India. They are said to be the first original settlers of ancient India. Dravidian culture is very diverse, with some groups maintaining more traditional customs such as totemism and matralinealism, while others have develope  ......

Extension of Chalukya Dynasty

The Chalukyas ruled parts of Southern and Central India between the 6th century and the 12th century.

# The Chalukya dynasty reached its peak during the reign of Pulakesin II.

# His grandfather Pulakesin I had created an empire around Vatapi.

# Pulakesin II subjugated the Kadambas, the Gang  ......

Origin of Kushana Empire Ancient History

Kushans or Kuei-Shang were one of the five Great Yueh-chi (tribes) principalities. In the 1st century CE, Kujula Kadphises (Kadphises I) brought together these five principalities and founded the Kushan Empire. The Kushans movement in India can be traced back to the first century CE during Kadphises  ......

The decline of the Kushana Empire

# Kanishka was succeeded by his son Vasishka.
# Vasishka was followed by Huvishka and Kanishka II (son of Vasishka).
# Kanishka II was followed by Vasudeva I.
# Vasudeva I was the last great king of the Kushanas. After his death, the empire disintegrated away. He probably died in 232 AD

After   ......

Kanishka of Kushan Dynasty

# He rules from 127 AD – 150 AD.
# Considered the greatest Kushana king and also a great king of ancient India.
# Son of Vima Kadphises.
# His kingdom included Afghanistan, parts of Sindhu, parts of Parthia, Punjab, Kashmir, parts of Magadha (including Pataliputra), Malwa, Benaras, perhaps part  ......

Life of Gautam Buddha and Buddhism

#  Buddhism was founded by Gautama Buddha.
 # Buddha was born as Prince Siddhartha at Lumbini near Kapilavastu (in present Nepal) in 566 BC.
# He was the son of Suddhodhana and Mahamaya. Suddhodhana was the chief of the Sakya clan. Due to this, Buddha was also known as ‘Sakyamuni’.
# His moth  ......

Chedi Dynasty Ancient History

# The Chedi/Cheti dynasty rose in Kalinga in the 1st century BCE.
# The Hathigumpha inscription situated near Bhubaneswar talks about this.
# This inscription was engraved by king Kharavela who was the third Cheti king.
# King Kharavela followed Jainism.
# Chedi dynasty was also known as Cheta o

Brief description of Kanva Dynasty

# According to the Puranas, there were 4 kings of the Kanva dynasty who were, Vasudeva, Bhumimitra, Narayana and Susarman.
# The Kanvas were said to be Brahmins.
The Magadha Empire had declined by this time to a great extent.
# The Northwest region was under the Greeks and parts of the Gangetic p  ......

What are the Teachings of Jainism

# Mahavira rejected Vedic principles.

# He did not believe in God’s existence. According to him, the universe is a product of the natural phenomenon of cause and effect.

# He believed in Karma and transmigration of the soul. The body dies but the soul does not.

# One will be punished or r  ......

Causes of the rise of Jainism

# Vedic religion had become highly ritualistic.

# Jainism was taught in Pali and Prakrit thus was more accessible to the common man as compared to Sanskrit.

# It was accessible to people of all castes.

# Varna system had rigidified and people of the lower castes led miserable lives. Jainism  ......

Who was founder of Jainism

Founder of Jainism – Vardhaman Mahavira (539- 467 B.C.)
Here are some great points about Verdhaman Mahavira.

# Considered the last Tirthankara.

# He was born at Kundagrama near Vaisali.

# His parents were Kshatriyas. Father – Siddhartha (Head of Jnatrika Clan); Mother – Trishala (Sis  ......

Origin of Jainism Ancient History

Vardhana Mahavira was the 24th Tirthankara (a great teacher) and is said to have propounded Jainism.

Origin of Jainism:

# Jainism is a very ancient religion. As per some traditions, it is as old as the Vedic religion.

# The Jain tradition has a succession of great teachers or Tirthankaras.

Explain Gautam Buddha Life for UPSC

Gautam Buddha’s teachings revolve around the middle path of the living, the eight-fold path to enlightenment, and four noble truths. This article will provide you with relevant NCERT notes on Buddha, Buddha’s philosophy and teachings of Gautam Buddha, for the IAS Exam.

 #   Buddhism was fou  ......

Later Vedic Period Vedic Civilization

Later Vedic Period or Painted Grey Ware Phase (1000 BC – 600 BC)

During this time, the Aryans moved eastwards and occupied western and eastern UP (Kosala) and Bihar.

Political structure:

# Kingdoms like Mahajanapadas were formed by amalgamating smaller kingdoms.
# King’s power increase  ......

Early Vedic Period Vedic Civilization

Early Vedic Period or Rig Vedic Period (1500 BC – 1000 BC)

Initially, the Aryans lived in the land known as “Sapta Sindhu” (Land of the Seven Rivers). These seven rivers were: Sindhu (Indus), Vipash (Beas), Vitasta (Jhelum), Parushni (Ravi), Asikni (Chenab), Shutudri (Satluj) and Saraswati.  ......

Indo-Aryan Migration to Vedic Civilization

# The Aryans were a semi-nomadic pastoral people.

# The original homeland of the Aryans is a matter of debate with different experts suggesting different regions from where they originated.

# Some say they came from the area around the Caspian Sea in Central Asia (Max Muller), while others thi  ......

Explain Upnishads Vedic Literature

A few important points about Upanishads are mentioned below:

# There are 108 Upanishads
# Out of 108 Upanishads, 13 are considered the major ones.
# The concepts of ‘Atman’ and ‘Brahman’ are majorly explained by Upanishads.

It contains philosophical ideas about the following concepts

Brahamanas Vedic Literature

They are the prose texts that explain the hymns in the Vedas and are also the classification of Sanskrit texts that are embedded within each Veda, incorporating myths and legends to explain and instruct Brahmins on the performance of Vedic rituals. In addition to explaining the symbolism and meaning  ......

Types of Vedic Literature

There are broadly two types of Vedic literature:

Shruti Literature – The word ‘Shruti’ from the term ‘Shruti Literature’ means ‘to hear’ and describes the sacred texts which comprise of Vedas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, & Upanishads. Shruti Literature is canonical, consisting of revelati  ......

Vedic Literature What are Vedas?

The Vedas are the large bodies of religious text that is composed of Vedic Sanskrit and originated in ancient India. They form the oldest scriptures of Hinduism and the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature. The Vedas are said to have passed on through verbal transmission from one generation to the ne  ......

Features of Rigveda

# It is the oldest form of Veda and oldest known Vedic Sanskrit text(1800 – 1100 BCE).

# The meaning of the word ‘Rigveda’ is Praise Knowledge.

# It has 10600 verses.

# Out of 10 books or mandalas, book number 1 and 10 are the youngest ones as they were written later than books 2 to 9  ......

Features of Samaveda

# There are 1549 verses (except 75 verses, all have been taken from Rigveda).

# There are two Upanishads embedded in Samaveda – Chandogya Upanishad and Kena Upanishad.

# The Samaveda is considered as the root of the Indian classical music and dance.

# It is considered as the storehouse of  ......

Features of Yajurveda

#. It has two types – Krishna (Black/Dark) & Shukla (White/Bright).

# Krishna Yajurveda has an un-arranged, unclear, motley collection of verses.

# Shukla Yajurveda has arranged and clear verses.

# The oldest layer of Yajurveda has 1875 verses mostly taken up from Rigveda.

# The middle  ......

Features of Atharvaveda

# The daily procedures of life are very well enumerated in this Veda.

# It has 730 hymns/suktas, 6000 mantras, and 20 books.

# Paippalada and the Saunakiya are two surviving recensions of Atharvaveda.

# Called a Veda of magical formulas, it includes three primary Upanishads – Mundaka Upan  ......

Types of Vedas

There are four types of Vedas – Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda. One of the best sources of Ancient Indian History is Vedic literature. Vedas have formed the Indian scripture. The ideas and practices of Vedic religion are codified by the Vedas and they also form the basis of classica  ......

Describe Rigveda for UPSC

Rigveda is regarded as one of the most sacred texts of Hinduism. It has fascinated scholars and historians due to its significance and antiquity. It is a collection of ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.

# The Rigveda is divided into ten books which are known as Mandalas

# It is  ......

The decline of Indus Valley Civilization

1. Causes of the decline of this civilization have not been firmly established. Archaeologists now believe that the civilization did not come to an abrupt end but gradually declined. People moved eastwards and cities were abandoned. Writing and trade declined.

2. Mortimer Wheeler suggested that t  ......

Indus Valley Civilization Important Sites

1. In India: Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Lothal, Dholavira, Rangpur, Surkotda (Gujarat), Banawali (Haryana), Ropar (Punjab). In Pakistan: Harappa (on river Ravi), Mohenjodaro (on Indus River in Sindh), Chanhudaro (in Sindh).

2. The civilization was first discovered during an excavation campaign under  ......

Indus Valley Civilization

:- The Indus Valley Civilization was established around 3300 BC. It flourished between 2600 BC and 1900 BC (Mature Indus Valley Civilization). It started declining around 1900 BC and disappeared around 1400 BC.

:- This is also called Harappan Civilization after the first city to be excavated, Har  ......

Important Chalcolithic Sites

1. Ahar (Banas valley, South Eastern Rajasthan) – The people of this region practised smelting and metallurgy, supplied copper tools to other contemporary communities. Rice was cultivated here.

2. Gilund (Banas valley, Rajasthan) – Stone blade industry was discovered here.
Daimabad  (Ahmadna  ......

Characteristics of the Chalcolithic Age

1. Agriculture & cattle rearing – The people living in the stone-copper age domesticated animals and cultivated food grains. They domesticated cows, sheep, goats, pig and buffaloes and hunted deer. It is not clear whether they were acquainted with the horse or not. People ate beef but did not take  ......

Chalcolithic Age Stone Copper Age

The Chalcolithic Age marked the emergence of the use of metal along with stone tools. The first metal to be used was copper. The chalcolithic age largely applied to the pre-Harappan phase, but in many parts of the country, it appears after the end of the bronze Harappan culture.

Important Neolithic Sites Ancient History

1. Koldihwa and Mahagara (lying south of Allahabad) – This site provides evidence of circular huts along with crude hand made pottery. There is also evidence of rice, which is the oldest evidence of rice, not only in India but anywhere in the world.

2. Mehrgarh (Balochistan, Pakistan) – The e  ......

Important Mesolithic Sites Ancient History

1. Bagor in Rajasthan is one of the biggest and best-documented Mesolithic sites in India. Bagor is on river Kothari where microliths along with animal bones and shells have been excavated.

2. Adamgarh in Madhya Pradesh provides the earliest evidence for the domestication of animals.

3. There   ......

Mesolithic Period Middle Stone Age

The term Mesolithic is derived from two Greek words – ‘meso’ and ‘lithic’. In Greek ‘meso’ means middle and ‘lithic’ means stone. Hence, the Mesolithic stage of prehistory is also known as the ‘Middle Stone Age’.

Both Mesolithic and Neolithic phases belong to the Holocene er  ......

Upper Palaeolithic age

The upper palaeolithic age coincided with the last phase of the ice age when the climate became comparatively warmer and less humid.
Emergence of Homo sapiens.
The period is marked by innovation in tools and technology. A lot of bone tools, including needles, harpoons, parallel-sided blades, fishi  ......

Middle Palaeolithic age

Tools used were flakes, blades, pointers, scrapers and borers.
The tools were smaller, lighter and thinner.
There was a decrease in the use of hand axes with respect to other tools.
Important middle Palaeolithic age sites:

Belan valley in UP
Luni valley (Rajasthan)
Son and Narmada rivers
Bh  ......

Main characteristics of the Palaeolithic age

1. The Indian people are believed to have belonged to the ‘Negrito’ race, and lived in the open air, river valleys, caves and rock shelters.
2. They were food gatherers, ate wild fruits and vegetables, and lived on hunting.
There was no knowledge of houses, pottery, agriculture. It was only in  ......

Palaeolithic Age Old Stone Age

The term ‘Palaeolithic’ is derived from the Greek word ‘palaeo’ which means old and ‘lithic’ meaning stone. Therefore, the term Palaeolithic age refers to the old stone age. The old stone age or palaeolithic culture of India developed in the Pleistocene period or the Ice Age, which is a   ......

Stone Age Ancient History

The stone age is the prehistoric period, i.e., the period before the development of the script, therefore the main source of information for this period is the archaeological excavations. Robert Bruce Foote is the archaeologist who discovered the first palaeolithic tool in India, the Pallavaram hand  ......